This study aimed to explore attentional foci and their temporal patterns in expert skaters in real competition situations. Individual self-confrontation interviews were held with 8 expert figure skaters while they watched their videotaped program performed in official competitions. Qualitative data analysis revealed that skaters used a substantial number of foci, which were classified by content and characteristics. Event listing was used to display the patterns of foci over time, revealing that skaters used distinct processes to prepare for, perform, and evaluate different program elements. These results highlighted the great flexibility and variability of attentional focus, according to circumstantial factors.
Marjorie Bernier, Christiane Trottier, Emilie Thienot and Jean Fournier
Kara K. Palmer and Ali Brian
The Test of Gross Motor Development, 2nd edition (TGMD-2), is one of the most widely used measures of motor skill competence. The purpose of this study was to examine if differences in scores exist between expert and novice coders on the TGMD-2 (Ulrich, 2000).
Three coders, one expert and two novices, reviewed and scored young children’s (N = 43; Boys = 57%; Mage = 4.88, SD = 0.28) TGMD-2 data. The kappa statistic was used to determine agreement between expert and novice coders on the locomotor and object control subscale of the TGMD-2. Independent samples t tests and percent differences were then used to examine scoring differences for each of the twelve skills.
Results support that expert and novice coders do not demonstrate significant agreement when scoring the TGMD-2 except for when scoring the kick (t 41 = –1.3, p = .2) and the gallop (t 41= –1.7, p = .09).
This work demonstrates that more stringent or consistent training regimens are needed before allowing novices to code TGMD-2 data.
David W. Eccles and Gershon Tenenbaum
The cognitive properties and processes of teams have not been considered in sport psychology research. These properties and processes extend beyond the sum of the cognitive properties and processes of the constituent members of the team to include factors unique to teams, such as team coordination and communication. A social-cognitive conceptual framework for the study of team coordination and communication is offered, based on research on social cognition and from industrial and organizational psychology. This is followed by a discussion of coordination and communication in expert teams. In addition, an overview of the type of methods that could be used to measure aspects of team coordination and communication in sport is provided. The framework and methods afford hypothesis generation for empirical research on coordination and communication in sport teams, a means to begin examining these constructs in sport, and a theoretical base with which to reconcile the resultant data.
Caterina Pesce, Lucio Cereatti, Rita Casella, Carlo Baldari and Laura Capranica
This study investigated the visual attention of older expert orienteers and older adults not practicing activities with high attentional and psychomotor demands, and considered whether prolonged practice of orienteering may counteract the age-related deterioration of visual attentional performance both at rest and under acute exercise. In two discriminative reaction time experiments, performed both at rest and under submaximal physical workload, visual attention was cued by means of spatial cues of different sizes followed, at different stimulus-onset asynchronies, by compound stimuli with local and global target features. Orienteers, as compared to nonathletes, showed a faster reaction speed and a complex pattern of attentional differences depending on the time constraints of the attentional task, the demands on endogenous attentional control, and the presence or absence of a concomitant effortful motor task. Results suggest that older expert orienteers have developed attentional skills that outweigh, at least at rest, the age-related deficits of visual attentional focusing.
Jean Côté, John Saimela, Pierre Trudel, Abderrahim Baria and Storm Russell
An expert system approach (Buchanan et al., 1983) was used to identify and conceptualize the knowledge of 17 Canadian expert high-performance gymnastic coaches. The knowledge elicitation process consisted of open-ended questions and various questioning methods to unveil, explore, and prove important information (Patton, 1987; Spradley, 1979) about coaching. All coaches’ interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the unstructured qualitative data were inductively analyzed following the procedures and techniques of grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). The inductive analysis process allowed the meaning units of the interview transcripts to be regrouped into properties, categories, and components. The components emerging from the analysis consisted of (a) competition, (b) training, (c) organization, (d) coach’s personal characteristics, (e) gymnast’s personal characteristics and level of development, and (f) contextual factors. These components were further developed into a model representing coaches’ knowledge.
Dae Hee Kwak, Joon Sung Lee and Joseph E. Mahan III
Participation in fantasy sports has become one of the most popular forms of interactive online entertainment, attracting more than 32 million players in North America. The purpose of this study was to examine the biasing effects of an advertisement promoting the popular online service. Using the illusion of control theory as a framework, a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment (N = 156) was conducted to examine the effects of two marketer-controlled variables (i.e., customization level and expert information) on participants’ illusory judgments and their decisions to participate in the advertised service. The results showed that both manipulated features evoked biases in control perceptions. Furthermore, illusory control increases winning expectancy and increased winning expectancy leads to favorable attitude and decision toward the advertised product. Findings suggest that promotional information emphasizing control heuristics and expert knowledge can increase consumers’ beliefs that they can control their outcome, which subsequently influences their decision to participate.
James Onate, Nelson Cortes, Cailee Welch and Bonnie Van Lunen
A clinical assessment tool that would allow for efficient large-group screening is needed to identify individuals potentially at risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury.
To assess the criterion validity of a jumplanding assessment tool compared with 3-dimensional (3D) motion analysis and evaluate interrater reliability across an expert vs novice rater using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS).
Nineteen female (age 19.58 ± .84 y, height 1.67 ± .05 m, mass 63.66 ± 10.11 kg) college soccer athletes volunteered.
Main Outcome Measurement:
Interrater reliability between expert rater (5 y LESS experience) vs novice rater (no LESS experience). LESS scores across 13 items and total score. 3D lower extremity kinematics were reduced to dichotomous values to match LESS items.
Participants performed drop-box landings from a 30-cm height with standard video-camera and 3D kinematic assessment.
Intrarater item reliability, assessed by kappa correlation, between novice and experienced LESS raters ranged from moderate to excellent (κ = .459–.875). Overall LESS score, assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient, was excellent (ICC2,1 = .835, P < .001). Statistically significant phi correlation (P < .05) was found between rater and 3D scores for knee-valgus range of motion; however, percent agreement between expert rater and 3D scores revealed excellent agreement (range of 84–100%) for ankle flexion at initial contact, knee-flexion range of motion, trunk flexion at maximum knee flexion, and foot position at initial contact for both external and internal rotation of tibia. Moderate agreement was found between rater and 3D scores for trunk flexion at initial contact, stance width less than shoulder width, knee valgus at initial contact, and knee-valgus range of motion.
Our findings support moderate to excellent validity and excellent expert vs novice interrater reliability of the LESS to accurately assess 3D kinematic motion patterns. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of the LESS to assess individuals at risk for ACL injury.
Nahoko Sato, Hiroyuki Nunome and Yasuo Ikegami
In hip-hop dance contests, a procedure for evaluating performances has not been clearly defined, and objective criteria for evaluation are necessary. It is assumed that most hip-hop dance techniques have common motion characteristics by which judges determine the dancer’s skill level. This study aimed to extract motion characteristics that may be linked to higher evaluations by judges. Ten expert and 12 nonexpert dancers performed basic rhythmic movements at a rate of 100 beats per minute. Their movements were captured using a motion capture system, and eight judges evaluated the performances. Four kinematic parameters, including the amplitude of the body motions and the phase delay, which indicates the phase difference between two joint angles, were calculated. The two groups showed no significant differences in terms of the amplitudes of the body motions. In contrast, the phase delay between the head motion and the other body parts’ motions of expert dancers who received higher scores from the judges, which was approximately a quarter cycle, produced a loop-shaped motion of the head. It is suggested that this slight phase delay was related to the judges’ evaluations and that these findings may help in constructing an objective evaluation system.
Nick Cavill, Stuart Biddle and James F. Sallis
An expert consensus development process was initiated to make public health recommendations regarding young people (5–18 years) and physical activity. Eight commissioned review papers were discussed at a meeting of over 50 academics and experts from a range of disciplines from the UK and overseas. Participants agreed on a consensus statement that summarized the research evidence and made two core recommendations. First, to optimize current and future health, all young people should participate in physical activity of at least moderate intensity for 1 hour per day. Young people who currently do little activity should participate in physical activity of at least moderate intensity for at least half an hour per day. The subsidiary recommendation is that, at least twice a week, some of these activities should help to enhance and maintain muscular strength and flexibility and bone health. A second aspect of the consensus process, which was based on extensive consultation, outlined the practical ways in which key organizations can work together to implement these recommendations. The resultant consensus statement provides a strong basis for the planning of future policies and programs to enhance young people’s participation in health-enhancing physical activity
K. Anders Ericsson
Traditional theories of aging claim that basic processing speed and memory capacities show inevitable decline with increasing age. Recent research, however, has shown that older experts in some domains are able to maintain their superior performance into old age. but even they display the typical age-related decline in performance on psychometric tests of fluid intelligence. The study of expert performance shows that adults retain the capacity to acquire and maintain performance with the appropriate type of training and practice, even speeded actions and many physiological adaptations. In fact, experts’ performance keeps improving for several decades into adulthood and typically reaches its peak between 30 and 50 years of age. The experts can then maintain their attained performance level into old age by regular deliberate practice. Much of the observed decline in older adults’ performance can be attributed to age-related reductions in engagement in domain-related activities—in particular, regular deliberate practice.