Children (N = 370), ages 9 to 11 years, responded to a fixed-alternative questionnaire which examined the influences of mothers, fathers, sisters, and brothers on the sport involvement of males and females. The following predictions were tested: (a) at similar levels of involvement (high or low), males would be discriminated from females by significant others; (b) value toward sport would discriminate between high- and low-involved males and females; (c) for high levels of involvement, fathers would be the most discriminating variable for both males and females. Within-sex discriminant analyses revealed fathers as predominant socializing agents for high-involved males, while all agents discriminated between high/low females. Between-sex discriminant analyses revealed significant differences only for high-involved males and females. Results were discussed in terms of early parental socialization practices and the support/encouragement necessary to increase sport involvement, particularly for females.
John H. Lewko and Martha E. Ewing
Olivier N. Schmid, Malayna Bernstein, Vanessa R. Shannon, Catherine Rishell and Catherine Griffith
Tennis has been identified as an ideal context for examining the dynamics of parenting and coaching relationships (Gould et al., 2008) but coaching dual-role relationships remain unexplored in this sport and related investigations only included volunteer coaches (Jowett, 2008; Harwood & Knight, 2012). An open-ended interview approach was used to examine how female tennis players previously coached by their fathers (professional coaches) before competing in college tennis perceived their experiences with the dual-role relationship and the coaching transition. A holistic narrative approach was used to reconstruct retrospectively the stories of the participants’ experiences and understand their development. Despite some beneficial aspects, a majority of participants emphasized their challenging experiences with regards to their needs to manage blurred boundaries, receive paternal approval, and endure their fathers’ controlling and abusive behaviors. Coaching transitions helped normalize father-daughter relationships and provided insight into the respective needs that were fulfilled through the dual-role relationships.
Lennart Raudsepp and Roomet Viira
This study examined the relative contributions of sex, social class, socioeconomic status of the family, and exercise behavior of significant others (father, mother, sister, brother, best friend) to the variability of physical activities of 13–15-year-old urban adolescents (N = 475). Physical activity was measured using 7-day physical activity recall. Family income was negatively correlated with physical activity of adolescents. Physical activity of the father, older brother, and best friend was associated with a higher activity level of adolescents (r = 0.24–0.33). Sex and social class of the families accounted for 18% of the variance of the adolescents’ physical activity. When the physical activity of the father, older brother, and best friend were entered into regression analysis, a total of 32% of the variation in adolescents’ physical activity was explained. Physical activity of adolescents is associated with sex, activity levels of significant others, and socioeconomic status of the family.
Fran Hoogestraat, Michael Phillips and Lanise Rosemond
Truly the best coaching education programs more than adequately outline the myriad of roles a coach must perform: from disciplinarian to diplomat, mother or father figure to dictator, from detective to judge and jury (Hammermeister, 2010; Sabock & Sabock, 2008.) Nevertheless, coaches at high school and college levels appear to be consistently confronted with unexpected surprises. Why is this?
Sally A. White
The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effects of task- and ego-orientation on adolescents’ perceptions of the parent-initiated motivational climate and competitive trait anxiety. Participants were 279 male and female adolescents (mean age = 14.41 years) who competed on organized sport teams. Based on a mean split on the two TEOSQ subscales, four goal orientation profile groups were created: high-task/high-ego, high-task/low-ego, high-ego/low-task, and low-task/low-ego. MANOVA results indicated that the high-task/low-ego group perceived that both their mother and father endorsed a learning and enjoyment motivational climate. In contrast, the high-ego/low-task group thought their mother and father valued a climate where success was coupled with low effort. In this group, fathers were perceived to cause worry about making mistakes. This group experienced the highest levels of competitive trait anxiety. For the high-task/high-ego group it was found that fathers emphasized a climate where success was linked to low levels of exerted effort and mothers were perceived to cause worry about making mistakes. However, the high-task/high-ego group also believed that both parents still valued learning and enjoyment in the development of physical skills. Lastly, individuals in the low-task/low-ego group perceived mothers to make them afraid of making mistakes in the learning of skills.
Katie L. Morton, Julian Barling, Ryan E. Rhodes, Louise C. Mâsse, Bruno D. Zumbo and Mark R. Beauchamp
We draw upon transformational leadership theory to develop an instrument to measure transformational parenting for use with adolescents. First, potential items were generated that were developmentally appropriate and evidence for content validity was provided through the use of focus groups with parents and adolescents. We subsequently provide evidence for several aspects of construct validity of measures derived from the Transformational Parenting Questionnaire (TPQ). Data were collected from 857 adolescents (M age = 14.70 years), who rated the behaviors of their mothers and fathers. The results provided support for a second-order measurement model of transformational parenting. In addition, positive relationships between mothers’ and fathers’ transformational parenting behaviors, adolescents’ self-regulatory efficacy for physical activity and healthy eating, and life satisfaction were found. The results of this research support the application of transformational leadership theory to parenting behaviors, as well as the construct validity of measures derived from the TPQ.
Jennifer A. Fredricks and Jacquelynne S. Eccles
This study uses analytic techniques to test the hypothesis that role modeling, parents’ beliefs, and the provision of experiences for the child are related to children’s perceptions of sport competence, value, and participation. Mothers and fathers and their 2nd-, 3rd-, and 5th-grade children responded to questionnaires. These 3 cohorts of children were followed for 1 year. Mothers and fathers were gender stereotyped in their beliefs and practices. Regression analyses revealed that parents’ perceptions of their children’s ability had the strongest unique relationship with children’s beliefs and participation both concurrently and over time. The results of the pattern-centered analyses demonstrated that the full set of parent socialization factors had an additive positive association with children’s outcomes.
Charlotte Louise Edwardson, Trish Gorely, Hayley Musson, Rebecca Duncombe and Rachel Sandford
Previous research has shown a positive relationship between activity-related social support provided by parents and peers and adolescents’ physical activity. However, more information is needed on whether activity-related social support differs by sociodemographic characteristics. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in activity-related social support in a sample of adolescents, by characteristics such as age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES), ethnicity, and physical activity level and to determine which characteristics are the most important predictors of activity-related social support.
Information was provided by 578 boys and 588 girls (11–14 years) on demographic factors, physical activity, and activity-related support. ANOVA, correlations, and multiple regression were performed to address the purposes of the study.
Boys, White British, younger, more physically active, and high-SES adolescents perceived more support for physical activity. Age predicted all types of support excluding peer support; ethnicity predicted mother logistic support and sibling support; gender predicted peer support, father explicit modeling, and father logistic support; and SES predicted mother and father logistic support.
Families and peers of adolescents who are female, from Black and minority ethnic groups, older, of low-SES, and less active should be targeted for intervention.
Jeanne Adèle Kentel and David Ramsankar
Coaches are in a strong position to lay the groundwork for positive outcomes and attitudes in sports. In this paper we attempt to uncover ways in which coaching and sport pedagogy might be informed through our perspectives as parents of two young girls. As a father and a mother from two different families we examine the complexities of competition among the young. We begin to theorize about the ways young people might contribute to the discourse about competition in sport and ways coaches, coach educators and researchers might respond to enact potential reform.
This article presents and examines a number of critical issues facing male psychology consultants when working with female athletes. It focuses on potential problems associated with cross-sex consulting in sport psychology, including such topics as developing and maintaining a professional relationship, ethics, range of services provided, and delivery of services. Ethical issues of cross-sex consulting are discussed and include sexual relationships, dependency, bonding, and the father figure syndrome. A brief section of this article provides insights on how to be effective in cross-sex consulting. Finally, a number of practical guidelines are provided on how males can become effective sport psychology consultants to female athletes.