loss than they are to attain gain) or feedback (providing information on an individuals’ behavior). Background Loss Aversion The theory of loss aversion suggests that the value of an outcome compared with its reference point (ie, the status quo) is more steeply negative than it is positive (ie, it is
Stephanie G. Kerrigan, Evan M. Forman, Mitesh Patel, Dave Williams, Fengqing Zhang, Ross D. Crosby and Meghan L. Butryn
Gert-Jan De Muynck, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Jochen Delrue, Nathalie Aelterman, Leen Haerens and Bart Soenens
A key objective of coaches is to motivate their athletes and to help them to improve their skills. One powerful way to achieve this objective is through the delivery of feedback ( Wright & O’Halloran, 2013 ), which can be defined as the provision of competence-related information about athletes
Rahel Gilgen-Ammann, Thomas Wyss, Severin Troesch, Louis Heyer and Wolfgang Taube
Oftentimes athletes’ perception derived from intrinsic feedback is not sufficient to adequately judge their movement execution. 1 , 2 Therefore, specific information from an external source is necessary to gain a better understanding of a particular movement pattern or of certain aspects of a
Suzete Chiviacowsky and Ricardo Drews
In this experiment, we investigated the motivational effects of feedback on motor learning observing the impact of temporal-comparison feedback on the learning of a coincident timing task. Two groups of participants, a positive (PTC) and a negative temporal-comparison group (NTC), received veridical feedback about their accuracy scores after every other practice trial (50%). In addition, after each block of 10 trials, the PTC group was given bogus feedback suggesting that their average performance was better than it was in the previous block, while the NTC group received bogus feedback suggesting that their average performance was worse than it was in the previous block. A retention test was performed one day after the practice phase, without feedback, to observe learning effects. In addition, after the practice phase and before the retention test, all participants filled out questionnaires to report their self-efficacy levels. The results demonstrate that temporal-comparison feedback affects the learning of motor skills. Participants of the PTC group showed greater timing accuracy and reported higher self-efficacy levels than the NTC group on the retention test. The findings further support the important motivational role of feedback for motor learning.
Anna M. Ifarraguerri, Danielle M. Torp, Abbey C. Thomas and Luke Donovan
Key Points ▸ Real-time video feedback caused inconsistent alterations in gait in patients with chronic ankle instability. ▸ Efficacy of other clinician cues during video feedback should be determined. ▸ Other gait retraining interventions should be considered when treating patients with chronic
Jonathon Weakley, Kevin Till, John Sampson, Harry Banyard, Cedric Leduc, Kyle Wilson, Greg Roe and Ben Jones
what is included within a training program, less consideration is given to how training programs are delivered. 6 This may be just as important, given external variables such as the provision of augmented visual and verbal kinematic feedback (eg, mean concentric velocity) when exercising have been
Paul D. Saville, Steven R. Bray, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, John Cairney, Deborah Marinoff-Shupe and Andrew Pettit
Interpersonal feedback from coaches may be instrumental in the formation of children’s self-efficacy to learn or perform sport skills. We report on two studies that explored perceived sources of self-efficacy and relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE) in one-on-one interviews with sport camp participants (N = 61; ages 7–12) and focus groups with recreational league participants (N = 28; ages 8–12). Participants’ responses indicated that prior experiences and socially constructed interactions contributed to the development of self-efficacy and RISE beliefs. Results support Bandura’s (1997) theorizing that self-efficacy is developed through processing of experiential feedback as well as Lent and Lopez’s (2002) tripartite theory proposing interpersonal feedback from influential others contributes to children’s RISE and self-efficacy.
Anthony J. Amorose and Peter J.K. Smith
Extending the research by Amorose and Weiss (1998), the present study tested whether experience level moderates the interpretation of coaching feedback as a cue of ability in younger and older children, and examined how descriptive and prescriptive informational feedback are used as a source of competence information. Younger (7–10 years) and older (12–14 years) girls with either high or low experience playing softball watched a series of videotapes depicting four youth sport athletes attempting to hit a softball. After each attempt, whether successful or unsuccessful, a coach was heard giving each athlete a specific type of feedback, either evaluative, descriptive, prescriptive, or neutral. Participants then rated each athlete’s ability, effort, and future expectancy of success. Although the hypothesized experience-level by age-group by feedback-type interactions did not emerge, the results showed strong feedback main effects for ability, effort, and future success. Analysis of these results suggest that feedback provides important cues for ability, effort, and future expectations of success in the physical domain, and that children use several cues of competence information in addition to the coach’s feedback to derive competence information.
Jeffrey P. Broker, Robert J. Gregor and Richard A. Schmidt
This study evaluated the retention of a cycling kinetic pattern using two different feedback schedules and evaluated the potential for feedback dependency in a continuous-task learning environment. Eighteen inexperienced cyclists rode a racing bicycle mounted to a fixed-fork Velodyne Trainer, with pedal forces monitored by dual piezoelectric transducers. Subjects received right-pedal shear force feedback and a criterion pattern emphasizing “effective” shear. Concurrent feedback (CFB) subjects received concurrent feedback 140 ms after the completion of every other revolution, while summary feedback (SFB) subjects received averaged feedback between trials. All subjects performed 10 retention trials without feedback 1 week later. Both groups improved significantly during practice, and performance decay in retention was negligible. Group differences during all phases were not significant. High CFB group proficiency in retention indicated that the detrimental aspects of frequent feedback were not significant. High SFB proficiency in retention suggests that large changes in kinetic patterning are achievable with relatively few feedback presentations.
Marlene Luis and Luc Tremblay
We aimed to determine if visual feedback use during aerial skills is more efficient at low angular head velocity (AHV; i.e., <350 deg/s) than at high AHV. Twelve experienced female acrobats performed 20 back tuck somersaults under four experimental conditions: full-vision (FV), vision at AHV below 350 deg/s (VBelow), vision at AHV above 350 deg/s (VAbove), and no-vision (NV). AHV was calculated in real time, and liquid crystal goggles were used to manipulate vision. Two gymnastics judges scored landing stability using a four-point scale. All vision conditions that allowed some vision yielded significantly better landing scores than in the NV condition. Furthermore, a nonparametric test revealed that VBelow yielded a better performance ranking than the FV condition. We conclude that visual feedback during a back tuck somersault is used for landing stability at all angular head velocities, but optimal feedback use occurs when there is retinal stability.