understand online gender-based violence targeted at these female athletes in social media spaces adopting a third-wave-feminism and intersectional perspective. The study highlights the presence of vitriol targeted at women athletes surrounding their job role and performance. The online social commentary
Emma Kavanagh, Chelsea Litchfield and Jaquelyn Osborne
Sarah Oxford and Fiona McLachlan
culture of predatory male sexuality, and how to teach boys and men to embrace sexual responsibility. With concern, Chawansky ( 2011 ) posits the SDP movement may draw heavily from Third Wave feminism and post-feminist critiques, resulting in a generic and limited conceptualization of gender and thus
M. Ann Hall
Using my own experience in sport, I explore two themes in this paper. One is that sport and feminism are often seen as incompatible. This means that sport is often overlooked, or at best underestimated, as a site of cultural struggle where gender relations are reproduced and sometimes resisted. The second is that there is a seemingly impervious border within sport feminism between academics and activists, between theory and practice, between the academy and the community, between researchers and the researched. The “Beckwith Belles” are women’s lived experience in sport and the context in which I examine the implication of these two themes.
Nancy E. Spencer
1998 marked the 25-year anniversary of the historic “Battle of the Sexes” between Billie Jean King and Bobby Riggs. That match has been credited with enhancing the status of girls and women in sport (Frey, 1998: Hahn. 1998: Nelson, 1998). Although the match was staged during the conjunctural moment now referred to as second wave feminism, it was commemorated within the context of third wave feminism. In this paper. I revisit discourses written about the Battle of the Sexes in 1973. Although it continues to be articulated as a watershed moment in women’s sport, recent characterizations of the match reflect transformations from second to third wave feminist discourses.
Emily A. Roper
In this paper, I will briefly describe my ongoing feminist journey and the significance and meaning of aligning myself with feminism. Additionally, I will discuss my feminist perspective, mainly feminist cultural studies, and how this framework informs my sport psychological research and practice. Lastly, I will discuss the potential of a feminist approach for broadening what it means to be a “sport psychologist.”
Ruth A. Chananie-Hill, Jennifer J. Waldron and Natalie K. Umsted
This study examines how women’s flat-track roller derby transcends traditional feminist models of sport and reflects contradictory third-wave feminist ideologies. The authors propose a third-wave feminist model of sport that reflects a mix of contradictory third-wave social justice and (post)feminist ideologies, such as individualistic dynamics of gendered and sexual expression, gender maneuvering, inclusiveness, concern for social justice, commercialization, spectacle, and stealth feminism. Using a qualitative content analysis of the Women’s Flat Track Derby Association league web sites, the authors apply the model to investigate how and to what extent the new derby reflects their model. This analysis yields four interrelated themes: (1) stealth feminism through alternative sport, (2) social justice and inclusiveness, (3) rebelling and reflecting identity performances, and (4) violent action chicks. The study concludes by exploring implications of the third-wave model of sport and women’s flat-track roller derby for the transformation of sport and the empowerment of women.
Martens (1987) and Dewar and Horn (1992) expressed the need for accepting diverse epistemological perspectives in sport psychology. This paper proposes feminism as an alternative approach to sport psychology research. Feminism grew out of dissatisfaction with “science-as-usual” that often overlooks the experiences of females and acknowledges that sport behavior does not occur in a value-free vacuum; male and female athletes are exposed to very different situations and experiences in sport. A reexamination of the knowledge base, with particular attention to the experiences of females, is needed. Because discontentment with logical positivism has led researchers in a variety of fields to adopt a feminist perspective, a brief critique of logical positivism is provided. A feminist paradigm and feminist methodologies are described, showing how they can enhance knowledge in sport psychology. Finally, examples of feminist inquiry in sport psychology are provided.
Michael A. Messner
This paper evaluates a growing genre of studies of masculinity and sport. It is argued that sport sociology, like sociology in general, has become more gender conscious but not necessarily more feminist. Feminist critiques of objectivism and value-free sociology and feminist calls for a values-based feminist standpoint are discussed. Two responses to feminism by male scholars—antifeminist masculinism and profeminism—are discussed and critically analyzed. Finally, it is argued that studies of masculinity and sport are more likely to tell a true story if they are grounded in an inclusive feminism, which utilizes multiple standpoints that take into account the intersections of class, race, gender, and other systems of domination and subordination.
Diane L. Gill
Feminist sport psychology encompasses many approaches and has many variations. The articles in this special issue reflect that variation but also reflect common themes outlined in this introductory article. The feminist framework for this article begins with bell hooks’ (2000) inclusive, action-oriented definition of feminism as “a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression” (p. viii). The following themes, drawn from feminist theory and sport studies scholarship, provide the supporting structure: (a) gender is relational rather than categorical; (b) gender is inextricably linked with race/ethnicity, class, and other social identities; (c) gender and cultural relations involve power and privilege; and (d) feminism demands action. Gender scholarship in sport psychology is reviewed noting recent moves toward feminist approaches and promising directions that incorporate cultural diversity and relational analyses to move toward feminist practice. The other articles in this issue reflect similar feminist themes and present unique contributions to guide us toward feminist sport psychology.
Michelle T. Helstein
Community is a powerful construct in the discourses of both feminism and sport, and so it is not surprising that it is a preeminent virtue in attempts to speak about, to, or for female athletes. In its popular conceptions, community is desired and celebrated as individuals coming together based on a solidarity, harmony, or agreement around an essence. In sport scholarship, the specific meanings, implications, contradictions, and effects that govern this particular understanding of community have remained unexplored. Thus, the aim of this article is to use the work of poststructural theorist Jacques Derrida to deconstruct this notion of community in an attempt to open up the concept of community to new theorizations and political uses. It will involve the introduction of Giorgio Agamben’s concept of the Whatever singularity, or in this case the Whatever athlete and its place in new possibilities for community in feminist sport contexts.