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Mia A. Schaumberg, Lynne M. Emmerton, David G. Jenkins, Nicola W. Burton, Xanne A.K. Janse de Jonge and Tina L. Skinner

the timing of menstruation), hormone-related symptoms (headaches, breast tenderness, spot bleeding, fluid retention and bloating, nausea, stomach pains, skin/acne concerns, lethargy, irritability, mood swings), and perceived effect of menstruation or OC use on physical activity, exercise, or sport

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

Rosendal & Coombes, 2013 ; Goulet et al., 2007 ). Mechanism of action • Fluid retention achieved by the use of an osmotic agent (glycerol or sodium) in fluids consumed in the hours before exercise increases body fluid stores; allows greater sweat losses during exercise to occur before the net fluid

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Alexander S.D. Gamble, Jessica L. Bigg, Tyler F. Vermeulen, Stephanie M. Boville, Greg S. Eskedjian, Sebastian Jannas-Vela, Jamie Whitfield, Matthew S. Palmer and Lawrence L. Spriet

: 21326389 doi:10.1139/H10-098. 10.1139/H10-098 Logan-Sprenger , H.M. , & Spriet , L.L. ( 2013 ). The acute effects of fluid intake on urine specific gravity and fluid retention in a mildly dehydrated state . The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 27 ( 4 ), 1002 – 1008 . PubMed ID

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Kelsey Dow, Robert Pritchett, Karen Roemer and Kelly Pritchett

beverage for female, intermittent-sport athletes (volleyball players) during a short recovery period. The present findings also support the claim that chocolate milk has superior rehydration properties when compared to a sports drink, based on its ability to decrease urine output and promote fluid

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Simon A. Feros, Warren B. Young and Brendan J. O’Brien

text Abbreviations: AU, arbitrary units; BVE, bivariate variable error; CON, control; DHY, dehydrated condition; DS, delivery stride; EUH, euhydrated condition; FR, fluid-retention trial; F6, first spell of 6 overs; ME, maximal-effort deliveries; MI, match-intensity deliveries; RE, radial error; S6

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Brett D. Tarca, Thomas P. Wycherley, Paul Bennett, Anthony Meade and Katia E. Ferrar

, ESKD patients have fluid abnormalities often leading to fluid retention. 84 It is established that BIA has reduced sensitivity to fluid status 85 (ie, fluid balance can acutely alter the BIA-reported body composition value 86 ). Hence, these body composition association results should be interpreted

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Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A. Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R. Moore and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

these requirements. For example, from a practical perspective, fluctuations in body composition may occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle as a result of fluid retention caused by the high levels of progesterone during this phase. Athletes with high levels of LBM may experience increases

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Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo and Maria Francesca Piacentini

. Baur DA , Bach CW , Hyder WJ , Ormsbee MJ . Fluid retention, muscle damage, and altered body composition at the Ultraman triathlon . Eur J Appl Physiol . 2016 ; 116 ( 3 ): 447 – 458 . PubMed doi:10.1007/s00421-015-3291-9 26560107 10.1007/s00421-015-3291-9 66. Bell P , Furber M , van

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associated with the menstrual cycle, particularly high circulating oestrogen, is thought to promote fluid retention; this study aimed to determine the effects of late-follicular (high oestrogen / low progesterone) vs. mid-luteal (high oestrogen / high progesterone) phases of the menstrual cycle on post