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Aaron Nelson, Nathan Koslakiewicz and Thomas Gus Almonroeder

) motion capture is limited as a clinical tool because of the time and expertise required for data collection or processing. The development of surrogate measures to assess knee kinetic symmetry may help to improve rehabilitation. Analysis of ground reaction force (GRF) symmetry using force plate

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Satyajit Ambike, Daniela Mattos, Vladimir Zatsiorsky and Mark Latash

, Vaillancourt, & Newell, 2000 ; Vaillancourt & Russell, 2002 ; Zhou, Solnik, Wu, & Latash, 2014 ). In particular, during accurate, constant force production tasks in isometric conditions with visual feedback, turning the feedback off results in a slow consistent drift of the force, typically to lower

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Erika Zemková and Michal Jeleň

positioning of the injured and contralateral limbs 4 are undertaken at relatively slow angular velocities of movement. Therefore, dynamic proprioception assessment may be more applicable to the dynamic model of knee joint stability. These tests involve the ability to regulate volitional force, and results

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Nobuyuki Inui

An experiment was conducted to examine the coupling of force variability in bimanual finger tapping sequences with asymmetrical forces. Right-handed participants were trained to produce bimanual finger tapping sequences consisted of an intertap interval of 500 ms and eight force conditions: two alternating force left high, two alternating force right high, two simultaneous force left high, and two simultaneous force right high conditions. During practice, visual force feedback was provided for both hands performing the bimanual tapping sequences. After practice, the participants produced the learned tapping sequences in the absence of feedback. Most importantly, whereas the peak force variability of the nondominant left hand was larger than that of the dominant right hand under the right high conditions, there was no left–right difference under the simultaneous left high conditions. This suggests that under the simultaneous left high conditions, both hemispheres were activated, resulting in overflow in the right hand, and bringing the two force variabilities closer together.

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Scott W. Cheatham and Russell Baker

body part using a 50% overlapping (distal to proximal) pattern with a relative elongation or stretch force range of 50% to 90% of the band length. 1 After application, the client performs up to a 2-minute “tissue flossing” intervention that may include various active and passive movements of the

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Steffi L. Colyer, Keith A. Stokes, James L.J. Bilzon, Danny Holdcroft and Aki I.T. Salo

skeleton-specific intensified training, focused on developing these physical characteristics, can successfully progress a novice skeleton athlete into a Winter Olympian. 6 The generation of muscular power is, however, a product of contraction force and velocity, and it is possible for different athletes to

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Hai-Jung Steffi Shih, Danielle N. Jarvis, Pamela Mikkelsen and Kornelia Kulig

adjustment before each unique impact. 13 , 14 , 25 During ground contact of bipedal jumps, the body contends with a large amount of reaction force during the transition from weight acceptance to propulsion. Thus, decreased variability of interlimb force coordination during the transition phase may be

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Matt R. Cross, Farhan Tinwala, Seth Lenetsky, Scott R. Brown, Matt Brughelli, Jean-Benoit Morin and Pierre Samozino

A key physical determinant of many sports is the ability to express force at a range of movement velocities. 1 , 2 In sprinting acceleration, assessing the component of ground-reaction force applied in the direction of the sprint (ie, horizontal force [ F h ]) can help further our understanding of

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Danny M. Pincivero, Rachael R. Polen and Brittany N. Byrd

The ability to predict force production from an isolated muscle (or muscle group) has been examined using a range of different anthropometric measurement modalities. 1 – 5 Perhaps the most widely used techniques to derive accurate estimates of muscle cross-sectional area and volume is magnetic

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Amy R. Lewis, William S.P. Robertson, Elissa J. Phillips, Paul N. Grimshaw and Marc Portus

. Musculotendon actuator parameters are often estimated using Hill-type muscle relationships 26 and are governed by the intrinsic force–length relationships established by Zajac, 27 which are based on anatomical studies. The maximum force a muscle can produce is a function of both its specific tension (force