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Lee R. Glazier, Trent Stellingwerff and Lawrence L. Spriet

This study investigated whether the supplement Microhydrin® (MH) contains silica hydride bonds (Si-H) and if Microhydrin supplementation increased performance or altered metabolism compared to placebo (PL) during prolonged endurance cycling. Seven endurance-trained male cyclists consumed 9.6 g of MH or PL over 48 h in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. Subjects cycled at ~ 70% of their VO2peak, coupled with five 2-min bursts at 85% VO2peak to simulate hill climbs over 2 h. Subjects then completed a time trial, which required them to complete 7 kJ/kg body mass as quickly as possible. Infrared spectrometry analysis showed a complete absence of Si-H bonds in MH. There was no difference in time trial performance between the 2 trials (PL: 2257 ± 120 s vs. MH: 2345 ± 152 s). Measured oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio, carbohydrate (MH: 2.99 ± 0.13 g/min; PL: 2.83 ± 0.17 g/min avg. over 2 h) and fat (MH: 0.341 ± 0.06 g/min; PL: 0.361 ± 0.07 g/min) oxidation rates and all blood parameters (lactate, glucose, and free fatty acids) were all unaffected by MH supplementation. The volume of expired CO2 and ventilation were significantly greater with MH supplementation (P ≤ 0.05). The results indicate that oral Microhydrin supplementation does not enhance cycling time trial performance or alter metabolism during prolonged submaximal exercise in endurance-trained cyclists.

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Ángel Gutiérrez, Marcela González-Gross, Manuel Delgado and Manuel J. Castillo

This study investigates, in young nonobese healthy athletes, the consequences of a 3-day fast coupled, or not, to enhanced physical activity. Eight male subjects, aged 21 ± 2 years, fasted for 3 days on two separate occasions, 4 weeks apart. On the first occasion, subjects continued their daily training activities. On the second occasion, a daily physical exercise program was added to these activities. Subjects were evaluated before and after 24 hours and 72 hours of fasting. Evaluation consisted of body composition, basal respiratory exchange ratio, plasma metabolic parameters, perception-reaction time (both simple and discriminant), hand grip strength, and physical work capacity at 170 beats per minute (PWC170). Fasting determined significant reductions in body weight, body fat, and muscle mass. These reductions were not affected by enhanced physical activity. Basal respiratory exchange ratio decreased with fasting but was not influenced by increased training activities. Fasting determined a significant decrease in blood glucose levels, while plasma proteins, urea, uric acid, and free fatty acids increased. Perception-reaction time and hand grip strength were unmodified during fasting. By contrast, PWC170 was significantly and progressively reduced during fasting, and this decrease was not reversed by an increase in training activities.

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Mahmoud S. El-Sayed, Angelheart J.M. Rattu and Ian Roberts

The study examined the effect of carbohydrate ingestion on exercise performance capacity. Nine male cyclists performed two separate trials at 70% VO2max for 60 min followed by a maximal ride for 10 min. During trials subjects were fed either an 8% glucose solution (CHO) or a placebo solution (PL), which were administered at rest and during and immediately after submaximal exercise. Statistical analyses indicated that glucose levels at rest increased significantly 15 min after the ingestion of CHO compared to PL. At 30 and 60 min during submaximal exercise, plasma glucose levels decreased significantly in the CHO but not in the PL trial. Following the performance ride, glucose levels increased significantly only during the CHO test trial. Free fatty acids did not change significantly during testing trials. The maximal performance ride results showed that in the CHO trial, a significantly greater external work load was accomplished compared to the PL trial. It is concluded that CHO ingestion improves maximal exercise performance after prolonged exercise.

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J. Mark Davis, Ralph S. Welsh and Nathan A. Alderson

Purpose:

This study was designed to test the hypothesis that addition of chromium (Cr) to a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink would enhance the reported benefits of carbohydrate on exercise capacity during intermittent high-intensity shuttle running.

Methods:

Eight physically active men performed 3 exercise trials while ingesting 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO), CHO plus chromium picolinate (400 μg) (CHO + Cr+3). or placebo (P) using a double-blind, counterbalanced design. Each trial consisted of 5 × 15 min bouts of shuttle running (walk, sprint, and run at 95 and 55% of estimated V̇O2max, separated by 3-min rest). This was followed by a fatigue test (running alternating 20-m lengths at 55 and 95% of estimated V̇O2, until fatigue).

Results:

During the standardized shuttle running, blood glucose was higher with both CHO and CHO + Cr+3 than P. Plasma free fatty acid was higher in P than both CHO and CHO + Cr+3 at 75 min of exercise and at fatigue. In the fatigue test, subjects ran longer with both CHO and CHO + Cr+3 than P.

Conclusions:

The data confirm an ergogenic benefit of ingesting CHO during exercise designed to imitate sports like basketball, soccer, and hockey, but do not support the hypothesis that the addition of Cr would enhance this effect.

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Ya Jun Chen, Stephen H. Wong, Chun Kwok Wong, Ching Wan Lam, Ya Jun Huang and Parco M. Siu

This study examined the effect of ingesting 3 isocaloric meals with different glycemic indices (GI) and glycemic loads (GL) 2 hr before exercise on metabolic responses and endurance running performance. Eight male runners completed 3 trials in a randomized order, separated by at least 7 days. Carbohydrate (CHO) content (%), GI, and GL were, respectively, 65%, 79, and 82 for the high-GI/high-GL meal (H-H); 65%, 40, and 42 for the low-GI/low-GL meal (L-L); and 36%, 78, and 44 for the high-GI/low-GL meal (H-L). Each trial consisted of a 1-hr run at 70% VO2max, followed by a 10-km performance run. Low-GL diets (H-L and L-L) were found to induce smaller metabolic changes during the postprandial period and during exercise, which were characterized by a lower CHO oxidation in the 2 trials (p < .05) and a concomitant, higher glycerol and free-fatty-acid concentration in the H-L trial (p < .05). There was no difference, however, in time to complete the preloaded 10-km performance run between trials. This suggests that the GL of the preexercise meal has an important role in determining subsequent metabolic responses.

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Stephen H.S Wong, Oi Won Chan, Ya Jun Chen, Heng Long Hu, Ching Wan Lam and Pak Kwong Chung

Purpose:

This study examined the effect of consuming carbohydrate- (CHO) electrolyte solution on running performance after different-glycemic-index (GI) meals.

Methods:

Nine men completed 3 trials in a randomized counterbalanced order, with trials separated by at least 7 days. Two hours before the run after an overnight fast, each participant consumed a high-GI (GI = 83) or low-GI (GI = 36) CHO meal or low-energy sugar-free Jell-O (GI = 0, control). The 2 isocaloric GI meals provided 1.5 g available CHO/kg body mass. During each trial, 2 ml/kg body mass of a 6.6% CHO-electrolyte solution was provided immediately before exercise and every 2.5 km after the start of running. Each trial consisted of a 21-km performance run on a level treadmill. The participants were required to run at 70% VO2max during the first 5 km of the run. They then completed the remaining 16 km as fast as possible.

Results:

There was no difference in the time to complete the 21-km run (high-GI vs. low-GI vs. control: 91.1 ± 2.0 vs. 91.8 ± 2.2 vs. 92.9 ± 2.0 min, n.s.). There were no differences in total CHO and fat oxidation throughout the trials, despite differences in preexercise blood glucose, serum insulin, and serum free-fatty-acid concentrations.

Conclusion:

When a CHO-electrolyte solution is consumed during a 21-km run, the GI of the preexercise CHO meal makes no difference in running performance.

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June C. Alberici, Peter A. Farrell, Penny M. Kris-Etherton and Carol A. Shively

This study examined the effects of preexercise candy bar ingestion on glycemic response, substrate utilization, and performance ie 8 trained male cyclists. The cyclists randomly ingested oee large milk chocolate bar (1CB), two large milk chocolate bars (2CB), or a placebo (P) 30 min prior to a 90-min cycle ride at 70% VO2max followed by a 33-W increase every 2 min until exhaustion (~10 min). Glucose decreased after 15 min of exercise but returned to preexercise values by 30 min of exercise. Glucose concentration for 2CB was significantly higher than for P and 1CB at exhaustion, Insulin concentration increased in response to ICB and 2CB and returned to preexercise values within 15 min of exercise. No significant differences were noted for free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations, Jactate concentrations, respiratory exchange ratio, total carbohydrate oxidation, or estimated fat and carbohydrate oxidation rates. Time to exhaustion was similar among the groups. The results suggest that the transient lowering of blood glucose observed with preexercise milk chocolate bar ingestion 30 min prior to exercise may not cause major metabolic perturbations that impair athletic performance in trained athletes performing moderately intense cycle exercise.

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Darlene A. Sedlock, Man-Gyoon Lee, Michael G. Flynn, Kyung-Shin Park and Gary H. Kamimori

Literature examining the effects of aerobic exercise training on excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) is sparse. In this study, 9 male participants (19–32 yr) trained (EX) for 12 wk, and 10 in a control group (CON) maintained normal activity. VO2max, rectal temperature (Tre), epinephrine, norepinephrine, free fatty acids (FFA), insulin, glucose, blood lactate (BLA), and EPOC were measured before (PRE) and after (POST) the intervention. EPOC at PRE was measured for 120 min after 30 min of treadmill running at 70% VO2max. EX completed 2 EPOC trials at POST, i.e., at the same absolute (ABS) and relative (REL) intensity; 1 EPOC test for CON served as both the ABS and REL trial because no significant change in VO2max was noted. During the ABS trial, total EPOC decreased significantly (p < .01) from PRE (39.4 ± 3.6 kcal) to POST (31.7 ± 2.2 kcal). Tre, epinephrine, insulin, glucose, and BLA at end-exercise or during recovery were significantly lower and FFA significantly higher after training. Training did not significantly affect EPOC during the REL trial; however, epinephrine was significantly lower, and norepinephrine and FFA, significantly higher, at endexercise after training. Results indicate that EPOC varies as a function of relative rather than absolute metabolic stress and that training improves the efficiency of metabolic regulation during recovery from exercise. Mechanisms for the decreased magnitude of EPOC in the ABS trial include decreases in BLA, Tre, and perhaps epinephrine-mediated hepatic glucose production and insulin-mediated glucose uptake.

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Megan E. Anderson, Clinton R. Bruce, Steve F. Fraser, Nigel K. Stepto, Rudi Klein, William G. Hopkins and John A. Hawley

Eight competitive oarswomen (age, 22 ± 3 years; mass, 64.4 ± 3.8 kg) performed three simulated 2,000-m time trials on a rowing ergometer. The trials, which were preceded by a 24-hour dietary and training control and 72 hours of caffeine abstinence, were condueted 1 hour after ingesting caffeine (6 or 9 mg kg ’ body mass) or placebo. Plasma free fatty acid concentrations before exercise were higher with caffeine than placebo (0.67 ± 0.34 vs. 0.72 ± 0.36 vs. 0.30±0.10 mM for 6 and 9 mg · kg−1; caffeine and placebo, respectively; p <.05). Performance lime improved 0.7% (95% confidence interval [Cf] 0 to 1.5%) with 6 mg kg−1 caffeine and 1.3$ (95% CI 0.5 to 2.0%) with 9 mg · kg−1 caffeine. The first 500 m of the 2,000 m was faster with the higher caffeine dose compared with placebo or the lower dose (1.53 ± 0.52 vs. 1.55 ± 0.62 and 1.56 ± 0.43 min; p = .02). We concluded that caffeine produces a worthwhile enhancement of performance in a controlled laboratory setting, primarily by improving the first 500 m of a 2,000-m row.

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Kevin J. Cole, David L. Costill, Raymond D. Starling, Bret H. Goodpaster, Scott W. Trappe and William J. Fink

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of caffeine ingestion on work output at various levels of perceived exertion during 30 min of isokinetie variable-resistance cycling exercise. Ten subjects completed six trials 1 hr after consuming either 6 mg · kg−1 caffeine (3 trials) or a placebo (3 trials). During each trial the subjects cycled at what they perceived to be a rating of 9 on the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale for the first 10 min, a rating of 12 for the next 10 min, and a rating of 15 for the final 10 min. Total work performed during the caffeine trials averaged 277.8 ± 26.1 kJ, whereas the mean total work during the placebo trials was 246.7 ± 21.5 kJ (p < .05). Blood glycerol and free fatty acid levels increased over time to a significantly greater degree in the caffeine trials than in the placebo trials (p < .05). However, there were no significant differences between conditions in respiratory exchange ratio. These data suggest that caffeine may play an ergogenic role in exercise performance by altering both neural perception of effort and substrate availability.