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Matthew David Cook and Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems

aging-associated cognitive decline ( Letenneur et al., 2007 ). For many years, benefits were attributed to the anthocyanins scavenging free radicals by B-ring hydroxyl groups and conjugated double bonds. However, anthocyanins also affect signaling pathways ( Qin & Anderson, 2012 ), particularly the

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Sabrina Skorski, Iñigo Mujika, Laurent Bosquet, Romain Meeusen, Aaron J. Coutts and Tim Meyer

, markers of muscle damage, and performance after a soccer match, 18 questioning the link between oxidative stress and performance recovery. Indeed, a growing body of literature suggests that free radicals might act as signaling molecules, specifically activating redox-sensitive transcription factors

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Jennifer Ostrowski, Angelina Purchio, Maria Beck, JoLynn Leisinger, Mackenzie Tucker and Sarah Hurst

musculoskeletal trauma: a review and update . J Athl Train . 2002 ; 37 ( 2 ): 209 – 217 . PubMed 16558673 8. Kehrer J . Free radicals as mediators of tissue injury and diseases . Crit Rev Toxicol . 1993 ; 23 ( 1 ): 21 – 48 . PubMed doi:10.3109/10408449309104073 10.3109/10408449309104073 8471159 9. Oliveira

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Christopher Tack, Faye Shorthouse and Lindsy Kass

influence on tendon healing. Two studies ( Hung et al., 2013 ; Ömeroğlu et al., 2009 ) examined vitamin C and its role as a free radical scavenger ( Buettner & Moseley, 1993 ). In the presence of reactive oxygen species, vitamin C donates two electrons to reduce the free radical, and a less reactive

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Mitchell Naughton, Joanna Miller and Gary J. Slater

localized myokines. Neutrophil action is implicated in free radical proliferation and secondary damage formation. 18 , 19 Evidence indicates that complex interactions between local and systemic factors are needed to stimulate healing and remodeling of skeletal muscle following IIMD. To date, understanding

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Jennifer Ostrowski, Angelina Purchio, Maria Beck and JoLynn Leisinger

trauma: a review and update . J Athl Train . 2002 ; 37 ( 2 ): 209 – 217 . PubMed ID: 16558673 16558673 12. Kehrer J . Free radicals as mediators of tissue injury and diseases . Rev Toxicol . 1993 ; 23 ( 1 ): 21 – 43 . doi:10.3109/10408449309104073 10.3109/10408449309104073 13. Oliveira N

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Zachary K. Winkelmann, Ethan J. Roberts and Kenneth E. Games

in this study. The change in the oxygen-free radicals within the muscle will ultimately produce collagen at the site of index, which results in fibrous adhesions. 35 Muscular fibrous adhesions limit the flexibility and tissue extensibility. Therefore, DOT may have an impact on the unwanted, negative

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Nathan A. Lewis, Andrew J. Simpkin, Sarah Moseley, Gareth Turner, Mark Homer, Ann Redgrave, Charles R. Pedlar and Richard Burden

Sports Med . 2014 ; 35 ( 1 ): 8 – 13 . PubMed ID: 23839729 8. Margonis K , Fatouros IG , Jamurtas AZ , et al . Oxidative stress biomarkers responses to physical overtraining: implications for diagnosis . Free Radic Biol Med . 2007 ; 43 ( 6 ): 901 – 910 . PubMed ID: 17697935 doi: 10.1016/j

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Thiago Correa Porto Gonçalves, Atila Alexandre Trapé, Jhennyfer Aline Lima Rodrigues, Simone Sakagute Tavares and Carlos Roberto Bueno Junior

: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.760405 Pinheiro , L.C. , Montenegro , M.F. , Amaral , J.H. , Ferreira , G.C. , Oliveira , A.M. , & Tanus-Santos , J.E. ( 2012 ). Increase in gastric pH reduces hypotensive effect of oral sodium nitrite in rats . Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 53 ( 4

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Ali M. McManus, Nathan R. Sletten and Daniel J. Green

. Ghiselli A , Serafini M , Natella F , Scaccini C . Total antioxidant capacity as a tool to assess redox status: critical view and experimental data . Free Radic Biol Med . 2000 ; 29 ( 11 ): 1106 – 14 . PubMed ID: 11121717 doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(00)00394-4 11121717 10.1016/S0891