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Sabrina Skorski, Iñigo Mujika, Laurent Bosquet, Romain Meeusen, Aaron J. Coutts and Tim Meyer

, markers of muscle damage, and performance after a soccer match, 18 questioning the link between oxidative stress and performance recovery. Indeed, a growing body of literature suggests that free radicals might act as signaling molecules, specifically activating redox-sensitive transcription factors

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Christopher Tack, Faye Shorthouse and Lindsy Kass

influence on tendon healing. Two studies ( Hung et al., 2013 ; Ömeroğlu et al., 2009 ) examined vitamin C and its role as a free radical scavenger ( Buettner & Moseley, 1993 ). In the presence of reactive oxygen species, vitamin C donates two electrons to reduce the free radical, and a less reactive

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Jennifer Ostrowski, Angelina Purchio, Maria Beck, JoLynn Leisinger, Mackenzie Tucker and Sarah Hurst

musculoskeletal trauma: a review and update . J Athl Train . 2002 ; 37 ( 2 ): 209 – 217 . PubMed 16558673 8. Kehrer J . Free radicals as mediators of tissue injury and diseases . Crit Rev Toxicol . 1993 ; 23 ( 1 ): 21 – 48 . PubMed doi:10.3109/10408449309104073 10.3109/10408449309104073 8471159 9. Oliveira

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Mitchell Naughton, Joanna Miller and Gary J. Slater

localized myokines. Neutrophil action is implicated in free radical proliferation and secondary damage formation. 18 , 19 Evidence indicates that complex interactions between local and systemic factors are needed to stimulate healing and remodeling of skeletal muscle following IIMD. To date, understanding

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Jennifer Ostrowski, Angelina Purchio, Maria Beck and JoLynn Leisinger

trauma: a review and update . J Athl Train . 2002 ; 37 ( 2 ): 209 – 217 . PubMed ID: 16558673 16558673 12. Kehrer J . Free radicals as mediators of tissue injury and diseases . Rev Toxicol . 1993 ; 23 ( 1 ): 21 – 43 . doi:10.3109/10408449309104073 10.3109/10408449309104073 13. Oliveira N

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Zachary K. Winkelmann, Ethan J. Roberts and Kenneth E. Games

in this study. The change in the oxygen-free radicals within the muscle will ultimately produce collagen at the site of index, which results in fibrous adhesions. 35 Muscular fibrous adhesions limit the flexibility and tissue extensibility. Therefore, DOT may have an impact on the unwanted, negative

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Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Stefan Pettersson, Fredrik Edin, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin and Klavs Madsen

exercise performance . Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 98 , 144 – 158 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.01.016 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.01.016 Cochran , A.J. , Myslik , F. , MacInnis , M.J. , Percival , M.E. , Bishop , D. , Tarnopolsky , M.A. , & Gibala , M.J. ( 2015

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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, José G. Villa, Raúl Pernía and Carl Foster

oxidative damage in road cycling . Free Radic Res . 2002 ; 36 : 247 – 253 . PubMed doi:10.1080/10715760290019255 10.1080/10715760290019255 12071342 12. Foster C , Hoyos J , Earnest C , Lucía A . Regulation of energy expenditure during prolonged athletic competition . Med Sci Sports Exerc

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Dariush Sheikholeslami-Vatani, Slahadin Ahmadi and Hassan Faraji

Aging is a physiological process that adversely affects most biological functions and results in reduced resistance to cellular stress. Furthermore, aging is characterized by an increased production of free radicals in several tissues, which might promote systemic cellular apoptosis followed by

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David C. Nieman, Courtney L. Capps, Christopher R. Capps, Zack L. Shue and Jennifer E. McBride

system is provided by essential micronutrient compounds ( Sies & Stahl, 1995 ). Carotenoids such as lycopene exert antioxidant functions, such as quenching of singlet oxygen species and the inhibition of free-radical reactions. Although human evidence is absent at the tissue level, oxidative damage from