Daily ambulatory activity is associated with health and functional status in older adults; however, assessment requires multiple days of activity monitoring. The objective of this study was to determine the relative capabilities of self-selected walking speed (SSWS), maximal walking speed (MWS), and walking speed reserve (WSR) to provide insight into daily ambulatory activity (steps per day) in community-dwelling older adults. Sixty-seven older adults completed testing and activity monitoring (age 80.39 [6.73] years). SSWS (R 2 = .51), MWS (R 2 = .35), and WSR calculated as a ratio (R 2 = .06) were significant predictors of daily ambulatory activity in unadjusted linear regression. Cutpoints for participants achieving < 8,000 steps/day were identified for SSWS (≤ 0.97 m/s, 44.2% sensitivity, 95.7% specificity, 10.28 +LR, 0.58 −LR) and MWS (≤ 1.39 m/s, 60.5% sensitivity, 78.3% specificity, 2.79 +LR, 0.50 −LR). SSWS may be a feasible proxy for assessing and monitoring daily ambulatory activity in older adults.
Addie Middleton, George D. Fulk, Michael W. Beets, Troy M. Herter and Stacy L. Fritz
Jacqueline M. Miotto, Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko, Jennifer L. Reich and Melissa M. Supler
A limiting factor in evaluating the functional status of older people is the lack of appropriate measurement tools for assessing functional mobility, muscle strength, aerobic endurance, agility, and flexibility. In this study, the reliability and validity of the seven-item Fullerton Functional Fitness Test (FFT) battery, designed for use with community-dwelling older adults, was examined. The test items were as follows: floor sit-and-reach, back scratch, 8-ft up-and-go, arm curl, 30-s chair stand. 2-min step, and 9-min walk. Seventy-nine participants (42 physically active, 37 sedentary) completed the FFT battery three times within a 2-week period. The test-retest reliability intraclass correlation coefficients were high. Construct validity analysis revealed that five of the seven FFT items discriminated between the physically active and sedentary groups. In conclusion, most of the evidence from the stability reliability and discriminant validity analyses supports the view that the Fullerton FFT battery is a reliable and valid test of functional fitness.
Roberta E. Rikli and C. Jessie Jones
The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a 6-min walk test as a measure of physical endurance in older adults. Seventy-seven subjects, ages 60-87. performed three separate 6-min walk tests and a treadmill test and completed questionnaire items assessing physical activity level and functional status. The 6-min walk had good test-retest reliability (.88 <R < .94). particularly when a practice trial preceded the test trial. Convergent validity of the 6-min walk was demonstrated by its moderate correlation (.71 < r < .82) with treadmill performance. Construct validity was assessed by determining the ability of the test to detect differences between different age and activity level groups. As expected, walking scores decreased significantly across decades and were significantly lower for low-active subjects compared to high-active subjects. There was a moderate relationship between 6-min walk scores and self-reported functional ability. It was concluded that the 6-min walk can be used to obtain reasonably reliable and valid measures of physical endurance in older adults and that it moderately reflects overall physical functional performance.
Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot have good long-term survival but less is known about the subjectively assessed quality of life or objectively measured functional status of those who have not required subsequent pulmonary valve replacement. We assessed these parameters in a group of children and adults free from pulmonary valve replacement after tetralogy of Fallot repair.
Methods and Results:
A random sample of 50 subjects—16 children and 34 adults, aged 4.1-56.7 years—who had undergone tetralogy of Fallot repair and were free from subsequent pulmonary valve replacement underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and completed standardized questionnaires assessing health related quality of life and resilience. Patients were generally asymptomatic (median New York Heart Association class = 1). Exercise capacity was within two standard deviations of normal for most children and adults (mean z VO2max: 0.20 + 1.5; mean z VO2max: 0.20 + 1.5; mean z VE/VCO2 −0.9 + 1.3). Children reported a total health-related quality of life score similar to healthy norms (78 + 10 versus 84 + 1, p = .73). Adult survivors also reported quality of life scores comparable to healthy norms. Resilience was highly correlated with all domains of health-related quality of life (r = .713, p < .0001).
Patients who have undergone tetralogy of Fallot repair in childhood and have not required pulmonary valve replacement have a good long-term health-related quality of life. The finding that patients with greater resilience had better health-related quality of life suggests that it may be beneficial to implement interventions to foster resilience.
Michael J. LaMonte, I-Min Lee, Eileen Rillamas-Sun, John Bellettiere, Kelly R. Evenson, David M. Buchner, Chongzhi Di, Cora E. Lewis, Dori E. Rosenberg, Marcia L. Stefanick and Andrea Z. LaCroix
Background: Limited data are available regarding the correlation between questionnaire and device-measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in older women. Methods: We evaluated these correlations in 5,992 women, aged 63 and older, who completed the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) and Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) PA questionnaires and the CARDIA SB questionnaire prior to wearing a hip-worn accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. Accelerometer-measured total, light, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and total SB time were defined according to cutpoints established in a calibration study. Spearman coefficients were used to evaluate correlations between questionnaire and device measures. Results: Mean time spent in PA and SB was lower for questionnaire than accelerometer measures, with variation in means according to age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and functional status. Overall, correlations between questionnaires and accelerometer measures were moderate for total PA, MVPA, and SB (r ≈ 0.20–0.40). Light intensity PA correlated weakly for WHI (r ≈ 0.01–0.06) and was variable for CHAMPS (r ≈ 0.07–0.22). Conclusion: Questionnaire and accelerometer estimates of total PA, MVPA, and SB have at best moderate correlations in older women and should not be assumed to be measuring the same behaviors or quantity of behavior. Light intensity PA is poorly measured by questionnaire. Because light intensity activities account for the largest proportion of daily activity time in older adults, and likely contribute to its health benefits, further research should investigate how to improve measurement of light intensity PA by questionnaires.
Rangasamy Suresh Babu, P. Anand, Mathew Jeraud, P. Periasamy and A. Namasivayam
Experimental studies concerning the analysis of locomotor behavior in spinal cord injury research are widely performed in rodent models. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the degree of functional recovery in reflex components and bipedal locomotor behavior of bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) after spinal contusive injury. Six monkeys were tested for various reflex components (grasping, righting, hopping, extension withdrawal) and were trained preoperatively to walk in bipedal fashion on the simple and complex locomotor runways (narrow beam, grid, inclined plane, treadmill) of this investigation. The overall performance of the animals’ motor behavior and the functional status of limb movements during bipedal locomotion were graded by the Combined Behavioral Score (CBS) system. Using the simple Allen weight-drop technique, a contusive injury was produced by dropping a 13-g weight from a height of 30 cm to the exposed spinal cord at the T12-L1 vertebral level of the trained monkeys. All the monkeys showed significant impairments in every reflex activity and in walking behavior during the early part of the postoperative period. In subsequent periods, the animals displayed mild alterations in certain reflex responses, such as grasping, extension withdrawal, and placing reflexes, which persisted through a 1-year follow-up. The contused animals traversed locomotor runways—narrow beam, incline plane, and grid runways—with more steps and few errors, as evaluated with the CBS system. Eventually, the behavioral performance of all spinal-contused monkeys recovered to near-preoperative level by the fifth postoperative month. The findings of this study reveal the recovery time course of various reflex components and bipedal locomotor behavior of spinal-contused macaques on runways for a postoperative period of up to 1 year. Our spinal cord research in primates is advantageous in understanding the characteristics of hind limb functions only, which possibly mimic the human motor behavior. This study may be also useful in detecting the beneficial effect of various donor tissue–neuroprotective drugs on the repair of impaired functions in a bipedal primate model of spinal injury.
José Machado Filho, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo Machado, Hirofumi Tanaka and Rodrigo Ferrari
adults are faced with the loss of functional independence. Among the neuromuscular parameters associated with functional independence, the development of muscular power is a strong predictor of functional status in the older population ( Foldvari et al., 2000 ; Reid & Fielding, 2012 ). Muscle power
Salih A. Salih, Nancye M. Peel, Di Enright and Wendy Marshall
there were significant improvements in the measured functional status at discharge from TCP, including PA level. Less time was spent being sedentary and the ‘uptime’ was significantly increased by 27.1% on discharge (mean difference 45 minutes SEM 18 minutes). The majority of clients attained or
Jennifer J. Sherwood, Cathy Inouye, Shannon L. Webb and Jenny O
year ( Payette et al., 2011 ), with loss of leg extensor peak muscle power strongly associated with fall risk, gait speed, and functional status ( Bassey et al., 1992 ; Bean et al., 2002 ; Cheng et al., 2014 ; Foldvari et al., 2000 ; Reid & Fielding, 2012 ). Early detection and treatment are
Guy C. Wilson, Yorgi Mavros, Lotti Tajouri and Maria Fiatarone Singh
) (frailty) (functional independence) (performance based test) (SPPB) (short physical performance battery) (TUG) (timed up and go) (walking speed) (gait velocity) (ambulation) (tandem walk) (tandem stand) (one legged stand) (forward reach) (lateral sway) (functional status) Note . Search terms: 88 search