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Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

carbohydrates (CHO) and electrolytes also play an important role in the genesis of RD. Indeed, drinks with a high concentration of CHOs and increased osmolality delay gastric emptying and may cause a shift of water in the gut lumen, favoring the onset of diarrhea. Conversely, the addition of a moderate amount

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Eric D.B. Goulet, Adrien De La Flore, Félix A. Savoie and Jonathan Gosselin

representation of the level of fluid integrated into the body fluid pool, not just the subtraction of net fluid in − net fluid out. As the energy density of all hyperhydration solutions was low (SIH: 0%; GIH and SGIH: 4.7%) and the fluid volume provided equivalently elevated among experiments, gastric emptying

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Emma L. Sweeney, Daniel J. Peart, Irene Kyza, Thomas Harkes, Jason G. Ellis and Ian H. Walshe

. Methodological differences may explain this discrepancy, as an IVGTT was employed by Ortega et al., whereas we used an OGTT. Gastric emptying plays a role during the OGTT, whereas this is bypassed when glucose is injected rather than ingested orally. Gastric emptying rate may be slowed by intermittent high

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Stephanie K. Gaskell, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe and Ricardo J.S. Costa

∶fructose, 10% w/v solution) promotes a high incidence and severity of GIS compared with Exer1-Deh and exertional-heat stress (Exer2-EHS). This is likely attributed to the feeding volume substantially increasing intragastric pressure with or without effects in gastric emptying and orocecal transit time and

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Grant M. Tinsley and Brett S. Nickerson

; Horber et al., 1992 ; Nana et al., 2012 ; Tinsley et al., 2017 ). The specific timing of food intake prior to assessment may also influence the impact of food and fluid intake. Median half gastric emptying time after a solid meal in healthy adults has been estimated as 2–3 hr, with small bowel transit

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Brianna J. Stubbs, Pete J. Cox, Tom Kirk, Rhys D. Evans and Kieran Clarke

can impact on gastric emptying, ketone absorption, and may also alter tolerability ( Shivva et al., 2016 ; Vandoorne et al., 2017 ). Conclusion Previous reports have provided simplistic insights into symptoms associated with exogenous ketone drinks. This work gives the first detailed description of

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

.e., delayed gastric emptying and intestinal transit, impaired digestion and intestinal absorption) consistently observed in response to exercise stress per se ( Costa et al., 2017a , 2017b ; Horner et al., 2015 ; Leiper, 2015 ). However, it appears that training status may influence food and fluid intake tolerance

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Ioanna Athanasiadou, Sven Christian Voss, Wesal El Saftawy, Hind Al-Jaber, Najib Dbes, Sameera Al-Yazedi, Waseem Samsam, Vidya Mohamed-Ali, Mohammed Alsayrafi, Georgia Valsami and Costas Georgakopoulos

the sports drink, probably due to the higher energy content of the later, resulting in delayed gastric emptying and slow absorption rate after hyperhydration ( Okabe et al., 2015 ). During the baseline phase, all the samples were reported with LH values above the threshold of 1.0 IU/L, while 24.6% and

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Linn Bøhler, Sílvia Ribeiro Coutinho, Jens F. Rehfeld, Linda Morgan and Catia Martins

). Differences in insulin sensitivity, fitness level, and body composition are, therefore, likely to contribute to the more sensitive appetite control seen in active versus inactive individuals. Moreover, it has also been shown that active men have a faster gastric emptying than inactive men ( Horner et

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Rebekah D. Alcock, Gregory C. Shaw, Nicolin Tee, Marijke Welvaert and Louise M. Burke

were given 5 min to consume 20 g of the supplement dissolved in 300 ml of warm water. To standardize gastric emptying, no further fluid was allowed for 60 min after the supplement ingestion and no food was consumed or exercise performed for 3 hr, after which, the participants returned to their normal