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Rômulo Maia Carlos Fonseca, Nanci Maria de França and Emmanuel Van Praagh

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between health-related physical fitness and bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescents. One hundred forty-four adolescents (65 boys and 79 girls) between 15 and 18 years of age were recruited to this cross-sectional study. Subjects were evaluated in aerobic fitness, muscular fitness, flexibility, body composition, and maturation. BMD of the lumbar spine, total body, and proximal femur were measured by a dual-energy X-ray absorptionmeter. Pearson’s correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used (p < .05). Lean body mass (LBM) and abdominal muscular fitness explained 35–40% of proximal femur BMD in whole group and boys’ total body BMD (43%); however, VO2max and LBM predicted girls’ total body BMD (23%). Lumbar spine BMD was predicted only by LBM for both genders (18% boys, 15% girls). In summary, lean body mass is the main predictor of bone mass during the end of adolescence, regardless of gender, whereas muscular fitness contributes more to bone mass among males than among females.

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Matthew T. Mahar and David A. Rowe

A comprehensive review of the impact of measurement and evaluation in kinesiology is difficult to accomplish within the framework of a single research paper. Measurement touches nearly every research area in the field of kinesiology. In fact, for quantitative research it can be argued that without good measurement there can be no good research. Measurement researchers in kinesiology have impacted various areas, including criterion-referenced evaluation of test scores, development of fitness tests to measure body composition and aerobic fitness, health-related physical fitness, physical activity epidemiology, youth fitness testing, and many others. They have introduced innovative statistical techniques such as item response theory, which provides the underlying basis for modern standardized testing. Issues of test equating, differential item functioning, and the great impact of the expansion of computers and the Internet deserve special attention. Unfortunately, not all of the important contributions in the measurement field can be expanded upon in this manuscript. Instead, this paper will focus mainly on key measurement and evaluation influences on public health issues. In applied measurement research, two major themes have been the assessment of physical fitness and the assessment of physical activity. The last 40 years have been a time of defining the content area of measurement in kinesiology. Important measurement textbooks were published during this period (Baumgartner & Jackson, 1975; Morrow, Jackson, Disch, & Mood, 1995; Safrit, 1986). Since the 1970s the measurement field and the kinesiology field in general expanded from a focus on physical education to include all of the exercise and sport sciences. This paper will explore measurement and evaluation in kinesiology by (a) providing an overview of major milestones in measurement and evaluation over the last 40 years, (b) discussing current key areas of research and inquiry in measurement and evaluation, and (c) speculating about future research and inquiry in measurement and evaluation. The absence in this article of other important issues in measurement and evaluation in kinesiology does not imply anything about their importance.

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Arunas Emeljanovas, Brigita Mieziene, Rita Gruodyte-Raciene, Saulius Sukys, Renata Rutkauskaite, Laima Trinkuniene, Natalija Fatkulina and Inga Gerulskiene

(Family and Peers, School and Community and Environment), strategies and investments (Government) and health related (physical fitness). Data from multiple sources were used to inform the grades in accordance with common benchmarks, and all grades were agreed upon within the national Report Card

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Brendan T. O’Keeffe, Alan E. Donnelly and Ciaran MacDonncha

, there has been a shift away from monitoring performance-related components of fitness to health-related components ( 36 ). Health-related physical fitness (HRPF) is made up of multiple components, including cardiorespiratory endurance (CRE); muscular fitness (muscular strength, local muscular endurance

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Emily M. D’Agostino, Sophia E. Day, Kevin J. Konty, Michael Larkin, Subir Saha and Katarzyna Wyka

. doi:10.1177/1090198107313481 18541647 10.1177/1090198107313481 2. Blom LC , Alvarez J , Zhang L , Kolbo J . Associations between health-related physical fitness, academic achievement and selected academic behaviors of elementary and middle school students in the state of Mississippi . J

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Saowaluck Suntraluck, Hirofumi Tanaka and Daroonwan Suksom

Characteristics and Health-Related Physical Fitness Blood pressure and heart rate were measured by a semi-automated blood pressure device (CARESCAPE V100, GE Dinamap, WI, USA). Body weight and body composition were measured by using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer (Tanita BC-533 InnerScan Body Composition

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Jo Welsman

, Viciana J. Criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness: a meta-analysis . J Sports Sci Med . 2015 ; 14 : 536 – 47 . PubMed ID: 26336340 26336340 15. Ortega FB , Artero EG , Ruiz JR , et al. Reliability of health-related physical

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Pamela H. Kulinna, Charles B. Corbin and Hyeonho Yu

. As noted in the Instructional Framework for Fitness Education (CPE) in Physical Education, “fitness education is a subcomponent of the total physical education program, focusing on helping students acquire knowledge and higher-order understanding of health-related physical fitness (the product), as

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Soubhagyalaxmi Mohanty, Balaram Pradhan and Alex Hankey

activities is associated with lower levels of health-related physical fitness ( Lieberman, Byrne, Mattern, Watt, & Fernandez-Vivo, 2010 ): flexibility, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance, and muscle strength ( Lieberman & McHugh, 2001 ) in children and youth with VI compared with their sighted

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Takashi Abe, Jeremy P. Loenneke, Robert S. Thiebaud and Mark Loftin

standardized approach . Age Ageing . 2011 ; 40 : 423 – 429 . doi:10.1093/ageing/afr051 10.1093/ageing/afr051 8. Tveter AT , Dagfinrud H , Moseng T , Holm I . Health-related physical fitness measures: reference values and reference equations for use in clinical practice . Arch Phys Med Rehabil