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Natalie Kružliaková, Paul A. Estabrooks, Wen You, Valisa Hedrick, Kathleen Porter, Michaela Kiernan and Jamie Zoellner

sex, age, race, ethnicity, educational attainment, employment/disability status, income, health literacy level, number of children, smoking status, and BMI. In addition, models used intention-to-treat with baseline observation carried forward imputations. 36 , 54 , 55 Results Demographics Of the 301

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David X. Marquez, Robert Wilson, Susan Aguiñaga, Priscilla Vásquez, Louis Fogg, Zhi Yang, JoEllen Wilbur, Susan Hughes and Charles Spanbauer

than multiple imputation. Because it resamples the empirical dataset, rather than fitting it to a normal distribution, it better retains the shape of non-normal distributions. One disadvantage of hot decking is that while it retains the same mean and variance as the original data, it can change the

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Kari Roethlisberger, Vista Beasley, Jeffrey Martin, Brigid Byrd, Krista Munroe-Chandler and Irene Muir

screened to assess missing data and normality. Missing data is typically not a problem if it is under 5% or 10% ( Bennett, 2001 ; Schafer, 1999 ) Mean imputation was used for seven missing data points for five variables. Given the low percentage (.002%) of missing data this approach is considered

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Shijun Zhu, Eun-Shim Nahm, Barbara Resnick, Erika Friedmann, Clayton Brown, Jumin Park, Jooyoung Cheon and DoHwan Park

). Participants who dropped out had frailer health (i.e., more arthritis, depression) than those who stayed in the study and were more likely to be hospitalized during the past 3 months prior to the baseline survey. We chose FIML instead of multiple imputation as FIML showed more efficiency in estimation than

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Keith R. Lohse, Jincheng Shen and Allan J. Kozlowski

complicated statistical adjustments (such as multiple imputation) when data are missing at random. • Including only cases with complete data will reduce statistical power and risk bias to the model if data are missing not at random (MNAR). • Depending on the method employed, imputing missing values may not

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Janet M. Boekhout, Brenda A.J. Berendsen, Denise A. Peels, Catherine A.W. Bolman and Lilian Lechner

point, and an interaction term between the weekly minutes of MVPA and measurement time point. Imputation of missing data was not applied, as it has been established that the use of incomplete cases in multilevel analysis results in more accurate estimations than applying imputation ( Twisk, De Boer, De

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Jeffrey Martin, Mario Vassallo, Jacklyn Carrico and Ellen Armstrong

imputation for five missing data points on the judge’s ratings of emotion was used. With this very low percentage of missing data, this approach is acceptable over more contemporary approaches such as multiple imputation ( Schafer, 1999 ; Schlomer, Bauman, & Card, 2010 ). We also calculated interrater

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Sarahjane Belton, Gavin Breslin, Stephen Shannon, Wesley O’Brien, Ben Fitzpatrick, Tandy Haughey, Fiona Chambers, Danielle Powell, Darryl McCullagh and Deirdre Brennan

authors are confident that the valid sample remained representative, given there were no significant differences in age or BMI between the original and valid sample. Further research may consider conducting imputation methods for improving sample size, such as multiple imputation or expectation

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Janet Robertson, Eric Emerson, Susannah Baines and Chris Hatton

for the outcome “frequent participation in sport/exercise,” the strength of association between sociodemographic factors, and participation separately for participants with and without intellectual disability. Missing data among sociodemographic variables were imputed using multiple imputation

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Florian Herbolsheimer, Stephanie Mosler, Richard Peter and the ActiFE Ulm Study Group

accelerometer. The maximum distance between a weather station and a participant’s residence was 40 km. Furthermore, sex and age (in years) were reported. Missing values Complete data were provided by 77.2% of all participants. An imputation procedure was applied for the depression scale if one of seven items