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Jeffrey W. Kassing

sanction but instead represented an intentional political statement the club sought to make. Earlier that day Catalonia held, according to the Spanish government, an unauthorized independence referendum vote. In response, Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy deployed the Spanish national police to quell

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Karen Lux Gaudreault, K. Andrew R. Richards, Kelly Simonton and Angela Simonton

) developing independence, (b) enhanced theoretical knowledge, and (c) frustration and disenchantment with the physical education profession. Developing Independence Both Kelly and Angela described a new degree of independence at this point in their careers. Kelly continued into the doctoral program working with the same

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Carol M. Vos, Denise M. Saint Arnault, Laura M. Struble, Nancy A. Gallagher and Janet L. Larson

-Mental State Exam ( Folstein et al., 2001 ). Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., 2010. Six themes common to all participants were identified: (a) PA includes planned exercise, activities of daily living, and social activities dependent on a schedule or routine; (b) PA means independence and confidence in

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Silvia Varela, José M. Cancela, Manuel Seijo-Martinez and Carlos Ayán

problems are not only neurological in origin but also have musculoskeletal contributions ( Covinsky, Eng, Lui, Sands, & Yaffe, 2003 ) and together induce downstream effects that lead to a functional loss of independence in daily life activities ( Covinsky et al., 2003 ; Harada et al., 2013 ) and an

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David M. Werner and Joaquin A. Barrios

-square test of independence was conducted. Post hoc testing of a significant chi-square was performed using assessment of standardized residuals. If standardized residuals were ±1.96 from the expected frequency (determined from the break frequency of the control participants), it represented the major cells

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Tim Henwood, Sharon Hetherington, Madeleine Purss, Kevin Rouse, Julie Morrow and Michele Smith

disability associated with loss of independence and transition to residential aged care is closely linked to physical inactivity. Physical inactivity is an established precursor to decreases in muscle mass, muscle strength, mobility, physical performance, and increasing falls risk ( Cruz-Jentoft et al., 2010

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Christine E. Roberts, Louise H. Phillips, Clare L. Cooper, Stuart Gray and Julia L. Allan

evaluation (FA); and the Physical Performance Test (PPT). Accepted self-reported ADL measures were: Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Short Form, physical functioning subscale (SF36-PF); Barthel Index (BI); Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADL); Katz Index of Independence in

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Élvio R. Gouveia, Andreas Ihle, Bruna R. Gouveia, Matthias Kliegel, Adilson Marques and Duarte L. Freitas

of independence, and finally illness and early death in older adults, targeting determinants of balance to reduce fall risk in old age is of high importance ( Howe, Rochester, Neil, Skelton, & Ballinger, 2011 ). There is evidence showing that muscle strength (MS) is associated with the ability to

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Guy El Hajj Boutros, José A. Morais and Antony D. Karelis

people to adopt healthy and active lifestyles and prevent many of the deleterious effects of aging. Healthy Aging and Physical Activity Physical activity appears to be an important lifestyle habit in order to achieve healthy aging by promoting independence and increasing the quality of life of older

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Tomoko Aoki, Hayato Tsuda and Hiroshi Kinoshita

independence in activities of daily living as well as reduces the quality of life. Hackel, Wolfe, Bang, and Canfield ( 1992 ) reported that a broad range of hand functions required for activities of daily living, as measured by the Jebsen test, decreased with age. There is also age-related declines in