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Brendan T. O’ Keeffe, Ciaran MacDonncha, Kwok Ng and Alan E. Donnelly

shown to be representative of the national sample (14.2% boys, 18.5% girls, and 67.3% mixed). There was an overrepresentation of private fee-paying schools (9.8% survey; 7.1% national). However, a chi-square test of independence indicated that this did not have a significant effect on any of the key

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Lorraine Cale and Jo Harris

understanding, and arguably to all good teaching, are the inclusion and empowerment of all pupils, and their subsequent shift with enhanced knowledge and understanding from dependence on the teacher to independence. In considering approaches to physical literacy development, Almond and Myers ( 2017 ) argue that

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Mathew Hillier, Louise Sutton, Lewis James, Dara Mojtahedi, Nicola Keay and Karen Hind

.4%) were significantly overrepresented for the “ I don’t use anymore ” response. Amateur athletes were also significantly overrepresented (39.8%) for the “ never use ” response. A chi-square test of independence found a significant difference in the use of gradual dieting between the different weight

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Michel Milistetd, Pierre Trudel, Steven Rynne, Isabel Maria Ribeiro Mesquita and Juarez Vieira do Nascimento

. Therefore, students should be treated as adults who have previous experience, a good level of cognitive maturity, learning style preferences, and the ability to take responsibility for their decisions. • Sharing power: Autonomy and independence are at the core of the learning process but they are impossible

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Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers, Nigel R. Green and Margaret E. Whitehead

should embrace environments that have a set environment (e.g., trampolining), and those that are subject to change (e.g., sailing). In addition, contexts need to present a variety of relationships with other movers, as well as those that demand independence and responsibility. Experience in these

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Jenn M. Jacobs and Thomas Templin

’s what he would say. That was my family. ( Jacobs, 2012 ) Don describes his relationship with his mom as being particularly influential on his childhood. In his opinion, their relationship was marked by tension and arguments, as Don attempted to establish independence and assert himself at an early age

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Wesley J. Wilson, Justin A. Haegele, Steven K. Holland and K. Andrew R. Richards

much), or support that interferes with independent task completion, may influence a sense of loss of independence or decreases in self-esteem among youth with disabilities ( Goodwin, 2001 ; Haegele, Sato, Zhu, & Kirk, 2019 ). In the current study, the degree to which the participants believed they

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Javier Raya-González, Fabio Yuzo Nakamura, Daniel Castillo, Javier Yanci and Maurizio Fanchini

estimating equation analysis. 22 To analyze longitudinal data with a binary outcome distribution (injury: yes/no), a logit link function was used, and a working correlations matrix was chosen based on quasi-likelihood under the independence model criterion (QIC) (ie, the lower QIC value) with an

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Dan Weaving, Clive Beggs, Nicholas Dalton-Barron, Ben Jones and Grant Abt

, 11 , 19 , 20 other variables might change in dissimilar ways, demonstrating a degree of independence. For example, in professional rugby league, Lovell et al 21 reported that the relationship between the session rating of perceived exertion and total distance was r  = .80 during conditioning

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Hanan A. Alfawaz, Soundararajan Krishnaswamy, Latifah Al-Faifi, Halima Ali Bin Atta, Mohammad Al-Shayaa, Saad A. Alghanim and Nasser M. Al-Daghri

, Saudi Arabia. Data Analysis Data analyses were done using SPSS 22.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Data were expressed as frequencies (%). The Pearson chi-square test of independence was used to determine relationships between use of dietary supplements and demographic variables such as age, income, BMI