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K. Andrew R. Richards, Karen Lux Gaudreault, Kelly L. Simonton and Angela Simonton

integrating groups of graduate students who may have different goals for or research foci within their degree programs ( Tom, 1999 ). Relying on one another, but developing independence Although all graduate students benefit from developing peer relationships that support and sustain their development

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Aubrey Newland, Maria Newton, E. Whitney G. Moore and W. Eric Legg

nested within teams) players have shared experiences, thus violating the assumption of independence of observations. This study addresses this gap through the use of multilevel modelling (MLM) which accounts for the nesting of players within teams. Present Study Two approaches to PYD outcomes in sport

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Brendan T. O’ Keeffe, Ciaran MacDonncha, Kwok Ng and Alan E. Donnelly

shown to be representative of the national sample (14.2% boys, 18.5% girls, and 67.3% mixed). There was an overrepresentation of private fee-paying schools (9.8% survey; 7.1% national). However, a chi-square test of independence indicated that this did not have a significant effect on any of the key

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Mathew Hillier, Louise Sutton, Lewis James, Dara Mojtahedi, Nicola Keay and Karen Hind

.4%) were significantly overrepresented for the “ I don’t use anymore ” response. Amateur athletes were also significantly overrepresented (39.8%) for the “ never use ” response. A chi-square test of independence found a significant difference in the use of gradual dieting between the different weight

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Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers, Nigel R. Green and Margaret E. Whitehead

should embrace environments that have a set environment (e.g., trampolining), and those that are subject to change (e.g., sailing). In addition, contexts need to present a variety of relationships with other movers, as well as those that demand independence and responsibility. Experience in these

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Wesley J. Wilson, Justin A. Haegele, Steven K. Holland and K. Andrew R. Richards

much), or support that interferes with independent task completion, may influence a sense of loss of independence or decreases in self-esteem among youth with disabilities ( Goodwin, 2001 ; Haegele, Sato, Zhu, & Kirk, 2019 ). In the current study, the degree to which the participants believed they

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Michel Milistetd, Pierre Trudel, Steven Rynne, Isabel Maria Ribeiro Mesquita and Juarez Vieira do Nascimento

. Therefore, students should be treated as adults who have previous experience, a good level of cognitive maturity, learning style preferences, and the ability to take responsibility for their decisions. • Sharing power: Autonomy and independence are at the core of the learning process but they are impossible

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Jenn M. Jacobs and Thomas Templin

’s what he would say. That was my family. ( Jacobs, 2012 ) Don describes his relationship with his mom as being particularly influential on his childhood. In his opinion, their relationship was marked by tension and arguments, as Don attempted to establish independence and assert himself at an early age

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Dan Weaving, Clive Beggs, Nicholas Dalton-Barron, Ben Jones and Grant Abt

, 11 , 19 , 20 other variables might change in dissimilar ways, demonstrating a degree of independence. For example, in professional rugby league, Lovell et al 21 reported that the relationship between the session rating of perceived exertion and total distance was r  = .80 during conditioning

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Cathal Cassidy, Kieran Collins and Marcus Shortall

). Nonparametric assumptions for chi-square goodness-of-fit tests were established by the presence of one low-level data variable, by the confirmation of independence of observations, and by verification that 80% of the expected frequencies in each group were ≥5. Statistical significance was established as α < .05