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Bruno P. Melo, Débora A. Guariglia, Rafael E. Pedro, Dennis A. Bertolini, Solange de Paula Ramos, Sidney B. Peres and Solange M. Franzói de Moraes

levels, and inflammatory cytokines; therefore, the regular practice of combined exercise has been considered of great importance for ILWHA. 7 , 8 In spite of the popularity of combined training, the acute immunological responses elicited by this type of exercise has not been completely elucidated in

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Mitchell Naughton, Joanna Miller and Gary J. Slater

review of musculoskeletal injuries noted that courses of progression of injury and secondary inflammatory response in EIMD and in direct muscle trauma (ie, IIMD) were divergent. 16 Furthermore, Merrick 16 noted that EIMD theory may not apply to muscle damage following blunt force trauma. These findings

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Jacob D. Meyer, Mary S. Hayney, Christopher L. Coe, Cameron L. Ninos and Bruce P. Barrett

Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of inflammatory processes in the progression from health to illness. Elevated inflammatory indicators are associated with both physiological and psychological disturbance, including chronic stress ( Libby, 2002 , 2007 ; Miller, Maletic, & Raison

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Tom Clifford

effects by NSAIDS, protein, or AOX supplementation. AOX = antioxidant; NSAIDS = nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; MPB = muscle protein breakdown; MPS = muscle protein synthesis. Studies have also suggested that older adults experience greater levels of muscle soreness than younger adults after

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Thiago R.S. Tenório, P. Babu Balagopal, Lars B. Andersen, Raphael M. Ritti-Dias, James O. Hill, Mara C. Lofrano-Prado and Wagner L. Prado

cardiovascular disease (CVD) ( 8 , 16 , 28 ). Although the process of atherosclerosis begins in childhood, it is a silently progressive disease that takes decades to manifest into the overt disease state ( 16 , 28 ). The presence of an inflammatory state is fundamental to all stages of CVD, and it plays a causal

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Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

may help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively without performance impediments. These supplements include creatine monohydrate, beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics, gelatin, and anti-inflammatory supplements such as curcumin or tart cherry

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Emily R. Hunt, Shelby E. Baez, Anne D. Olson, Timothy A. Butterfield and Esther Dupont-Versteegden

immediately after the insult modulates the potentially damaging inflammatory processes. 30 , 31 Increases in peak torque seen after massage suggest that it also can accelerate muscle recovery and hasten the return of normal function. 23 Moreover, massage also induces an upregulation of protein synthesis and

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Mike Pryzbek, Julie Richardson, Lehana Thabane and Ada Tang

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory cardiovascular disorder wherein atherosclerotic plaques gradually develop and can rupture, leading to stroke or myocardial infarction ( Ross, 1993 ). The presence and extent of inflammation can be evaluated by measuring biomarkers, such as high-sensitivity C

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Chantal A. Vella, Erin D. Michos, Dorothy D. Sears, Mary Cushman, Rachel B. Van Hollebeke, Michelle M. Wiest and Matthew A. Allison

cross-sectional area, and lower fat infiltration within the muscle. 8 Although the mechanisms for loss of muscle mass and function with age are unclear, higher levels of inflammatory markers have been hypothesized to play a role through catabolic effects on muscle tissue. 9 – 11 Thus, it is of growing

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Matthew David Cook and Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems

performance may result from increases in blood flow, while training adaptations may be influenced by alterations in cellular signaling and faster recovery through antioxidative and anti-inflammatory pathways. Acknowledgments The manuscript preparation was undertaken by M.D. Cook and M.E.T. Willems. Both