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James E. Johnson, Robert M. Turick, Michael F. Dalgety, Khirey B. Walker, Eric L. Klosterman and Anya T. Eicher

, 2001 ). Due in part to growing criticisms of higher education, academic rigor has recently drawn great attention ( Asher, 2013 ; Collier, 2013 ; Desilver, 2017 ). The American higher education system is routinely attacked for its lack of challenging work, declining standards, and inflation of student

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Justin A. Haegele, Carrie J. Aigner and Sean Healy

lead to figure inflation ( Weden et al., 2013 ). Third, the broad range of topics covered in NSCH may be a limitation, because additional depth about the variables of interest is largely unavailable (e.g., participants’ specific VIs and time and intensity of PA). For example, the NSCH ST question

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Zachary W. Bell, Scott J. Dankel, Robert W. Spitz, Raksha N. Chatakondi, Takashi Abe and Jeremy P. Loenneke

reached a pressure that they deemed to be a moderate pressure with no pain (7 out of 10), they were asked to verbally state the word “7” (in line with the recommendations of Wilson et al 3 ). In the likelihood that AOP was found before participants rated their 7 out of 10, inflation of the cuff was

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Raul Reina, Yeshayahu Hutzler, María C. Iniguez-Santiago and Juan A. Moreno-Murcia

three steps: (a) examining the correlations among the variables, (b) assessing the tolerance values for the predictive variables, and (c) analyzing the variance inflation factor coefficients. All the data analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 22.0 for Windows

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Seung-uk Ko, Gerald J. Jerome, Eleanor M. Simonsick, Stephanie Studenski and Luigi Ferrucci

(except speed itself). Statistical significance was defined using a p value less than .05. We checked for collinearity by identifying variance inflation factors above four ( Pan & Jackson, 2008 ). Statistical analyses were performed with SAS 9.2 statistical package (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Table

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Ryan King-White and Adam Beissel

today’s dollars, adjusting for inflation) stand-alone 6,000 seat football stadium (Minnegan Field) would be constructed ( Binns, 1976 ; Gounaris, 1978 ). Given these ‘cosmetic’ changes, some stakeholder groups began calling for the athletics programs to move up to Division II for football and Division

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Zenzi Huysmans and Damien Clement

inflation factor, which indicated that multicollinearity was not likely to be an issue (see Table 4; O’brien, 2007 ). Results Descriptive Data Predictor variables Table  1 displays complete descriptive data for the preseason study variables. Table 1 Descriptive Statistics   Total Sample Females Males

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Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, Chad M. Killian, K. Andrew R. Richards and Jesse L. Rhoades

’ Base Salaries The participants reported an average base salary of $65,866.27 ( SD  = $17,640.21). This average salary is notably higher than the $23,000.00 reported by Metzler and Freedman (1985) , which is $56,657.09 after adjusting for inflation. A 3 × 2 (Institution Type × Gender) factorial ANOVA

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Chevelle M.A. Davis, Tetine L. Sentell, Juliana Fernandes de Souza Barbosa, Alban Ylli, Carmen-Lucia Curcio and Catherine M. Pirkle

interrelationships between variables included in the final model with tolerance and variance inflation factor measures. Except for study site, all variables had tolerances and variance inflation factor measures close to 1, indicating the variables were orthogonal to each other (i.e., uncorrelated). For study site

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Molly Hayes Sauder and Michael Mudrick

independent variables as variance inflation factors ranged from 1.27 to 2.40. Concern over multicollinearity would be warranted if the largest variance inflation factor is greater than 10 or if the average variance inflation factor is substantially greater than one ( Field, 2013 ). To examine this research