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Lina E. Lundgren, Tai T. Tran, Sophia Nimphius, Ellen Raymond, Josh L. Secomb, Oliver R.L. Farley, Robert U. Newton, Julie R. Steele and Jeremy M. Sheppard

Purpose:

To develop and evaluate a multifactorial model based on landing performance to estimate injury risk for surfing athletes.

Methods:

Five measures were collected from 78 competitive surfing athletes and used to create a model to serve as a screening tool for landing tasks and potential injury risk. In the second part of the study, the model was evaluated using junior surfing athletes (n = 32) with a longitudinal follow-up of their injuries over 26 wk. Two models were compared based on the collected data, and magnitude-based inferences were applied to determine the likelihood of differences between injured and noninjured groups.

Results:

The study resulted in a model based on 5 measures—ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion, isometric midthigh-pull lower-body strength, time to stabilization during a drop-and-stick (DS) landing, relative peak force during a DS landing, and frontal-plane DS-landing video analysis—for male and female professional surfers and male and female junior surfers. Evaluation of the model showed that a scaled probability score was more likely to detect injuries in junior surfing athletes and reported a correlation of r = .66, P = .001, with a model of equal variable importance. The injured (n = 7) surfers had a lower probability score (0.18 ± 0.16) than the noninjured group (n = 25, 0.36 ± 0.15), with 98% likelihood, Cohen d = 1.04.

Conclusions:

The proposed model seems sensitive and easy to implement and interpret. Further research is recommended to show full validity for potential adaptations for other sports.

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Brandon M. Ness, Kory Zimney and William E. Schweinle

Context:

Injury risk factors and relevant assessments have been identified in women’s soccer athletes. Other tests assess fitness (eg, the Gauntlet Test [GT]). However, little empirical support exists for the utility of the GT to predict time loss injury.

Objectives:

To examine the GT as a predictor of injury in intercollegiate Division I female soccer athletes.

Design:

Retrospective, nonexperimental descriptive cohort study.

Setting:

College athletic facilities.

Participants:

71 female Division I soccer athletes (age 19.6 ± 1.24 y, BMI 23.0 ± 2.19).

Main Outcome Measures:

GT, demographic, and injury data were collected over 3 consecutive seasons. GT trials were administered by coaching staff each preseason. Participation in team-based activities (practices, matches) was restricted until a successful GT trial. Soccer-related injuries that resulted in time loss from participation were recorded.

Results:

71 subjects met the inclusion criteria, with 12 lower body time loss injuries sustained. Logistic regression models indicated that with each unsuccessful GT attempt, the odds of sustaining an injury increased by a factor of 3.5 (P < .02). The Youden index was 2 GT trials for success, at which sensitivity = .92 and specificity = .46. For successive GT trials before success (1, 2, or 3), the predicted probabilities for injury were .063, .194, and .463, respectively.

Conclusions:

The GT appears to be a convenient and predictive screen for potential lowerbody injuries among female soccer athletes in this cohort. Further investigation into the appropriate application of the GT for injury prediction is warranted given the scope of this study.

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Charlie Bowen, Kristian Weaver, Nicola Relph and Matt Greig

strategies. Screening measures have been developed in order to monitor performance, highlight injury risk, and provide baseline measures, 6 , 7 but there is limited published research in elite adolescent soccer players. 6 , 7 There is also considerable diversity in the screening protocols used 8 , 9 and

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Mark De Ste Croix, Abigail Priestley, Rhodri Lloyd and Jon Oliver

Injury risk increases throughout adolescence and appears to peak around peak height velocity (PHV) ( 30 ), and it is associated with pubertal development ( 17 ). It is well recognized that when rapid, unanticipated movements and landing activities are performed, the medial and lateral hamstring

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Shane Malone, Mark Roe, Dominic A. Doran, Tim J. Gabbett and Kieran D. Collins

Purpose:

To examine the association between combined session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) workload measures and injury risk in elite Gaelic footballers.

Methods:

Thirty-seven elite Gaelic footballers (mean ± SD age 24.2 ± 2.9 y) from 1 elite squad were involved in a single-season study. Weekly workload (session RPE multiplied by duration) and all time-loss injuries (including subsequent-wk injuries) were recorded during the period. Rolling weekly sums and wk-to-wk changes in workload were measured, enabling the calculation of the acute:chronic workload ratio by dividing acute workload (ie, 1-weekly workload) by chronic workload (ie, rolling-average 4-weekly workload). Workload measures were then modeled against data for all injuries sustained using a logistic-regression model. Odds ratios (ORs) were reported against a reference group.

Results:

High 1-weekly workloads (≥2770 arbitrary units [AU], OR = 1.63–6.75) were associated with significantly higher risk of injury than in a low-training-load reference group (<1250 AU). When exposed to spikes in workload (acute:chronic workload ratio >1.5), players with 1 y experience had a higher risk of injury (OR = 2.22) and players with 2–3 (OR = 0.20) and 4–6 y (OR = 0.24) of experience had a lower risk of injury. Players with poorer aerobic fitness (estimated from a 1-km time trial) had a higher injury risk than those with higher aerobic fitness (OR = 1.50–2.50). An acute:chronic workload ratio of (≥2.0) demonstrated the greatest risk of injury.

Conclusions:

These findings highlight an increased risk of injury for elite Gaelic football players with high (>2.0) acute:chronic workload ratios and high weekly workloads. A high aerobic capacity and playing experience appears to offer injury protection against rapid changes in workload and high acute:chronic workload ratios. Moderate workloads, coupled with moderate to high changes in the acute:chronic workload ratio, appear to be protective for Gaelic football players.

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Marisa A. Colston, Gary B. Wilkerson, Hillary Dreyfus and Ryan Ross

Key Points ▸ Risk assessment is an essential component of continuous reduction of sport injury risk. ▸ Retrospectively-derived risk categorization cut-points identified players who sustained season injuries. ▸ Previous injury, limb asymmetry on the Y-AR, and short hold time on the HTH are

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Paul Comfort, Aideen Colclough and Lee Herrington

The aim of this study was to compare FPPA between three landing tasks and determine the reliability of FPPA in 15 competitive female gymnasts (age 13.5 ± 2.07 years). Reliability of FPPA was highest in the drop landing task, with no learning effect present. The backaway task showed the greatest FFPA (right: 26.75 ± 9.57°; left: 19.67 ± 9.03°), which was greater than the drop landing task (right: 19.07 ± 7.42°; left: 12.18 ± 4.83°). Individuals involved in training young female gymnasts are encouraged to screen for injury risk using FPPA during the drop landing task.

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Allan Munro, Lee Herrington and Paul Comfort

Context:

Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and patellofemoral joint (PFJ) are a significant problem in female athletes. A number of screening tasks have been used in the literature to identify those at greatest risk of injury. To date, no study has examined the relationship in 2-dimensional (2D) knee valgus between common screening tasks to determine whether individuals exhibit similar movement patterns across tasks.

Objective:

To establish whether frontal-plane projection angle (FPPA) during the single-leg squat (SLS), single-leg land (SLL), and drop jump (DJ) are related.

Design:

Cross-sectional study.

Setting:

University laboratory.

Participants:

52 national-league female football players and 36 national-league female basketball players.

Main Outcome Measures:

2D FPPA during the SLS, SLL, and DJ screening tasks.

Results:

Significant correlations were found between tasks. FPPA in the SLS was significantly correlated with SLL (r = .52) and DJ (r = .30), whereas FPPA in the SLL was also significantly correlated to DJ (r = .33). FPPA was significantly greater in the SLS than in the SLL (P < .001) and DJ (P < .001) and in the SLL than in the DJ (P < .001).

Conclusion:

The results showed that 2D FPPA is correlated across the SLS, SLL, and DJ tasks. However, significantly greater FPPA values in the unilateral tasks suggest that the DJ may not identify risk of injury in sports where primary injury mechanisms are during unilateral loading tasks. Therefore, it is recommended that both unilateral and bilateral tasks be included when screening for ACL and PFJ injury risk.

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Jeffrey B. Taylor, Alexis A. Wright, James M. Smoliga, J. Tyler DePew and Eric J. Hegedus

Context:

Physical-performance tests (PPTs) are commonly used in rehabilitation and injury-prevention settings, yet normative values of upper-extremity PPTs have not been established in high-level athletes.

Objective:

To establish normative data values for the Closed Kinetic Chain Upper-Extremity Stability Test (CKCUEST) and Upper-Quarter Y-Balance Test (UQYBT) in college athletes and compare results between sports and to analyze the relationship between the 2 tests.

Design:

Observational.

Setting:

Laboratory/athletic facility.

Participants:

257 (118 male, 139 female) Division I athletes participating in basketball, soccer, baseball, lacrosse, volleyball, track and field, and cross-country.

Intervention:

CKCUEST and UQYBT scores were recorded as part of a comprehensive injury-risk screening battery.

Main Outcome Measure:

Pearson correlations assessed the relationship between all measures of the CKCUEST and UQYBT. A factorial ANOVA and a repeated-measures ANOVA (arm dominance) were used to assess interactions between sex, year in school, and sport for CKCUEST and UQYBT scores.

Results:

Normative values for the CKCUEST and UQYBT were established for 9 men’s and women’s college sports. No significant relationships were found between PPT scores. Men scored significantly higher than women for the CKCUEST (P = .002) and UQYBT (P = .010). Baseball players scored significantly higher than athletes from all other sports for the UQYBT (P < .001) but showed nonsignificant trends of lower scores for the CKCUEST than lower-extremity-dominant athletes such as runners (P = .063) and lacrosse players (P = .058).

Conclusions:

Results suggest that average CKCUEST and UQYBT scores in Division I athletes are distinct from those previously reported in recreationally active populations and that performance differences exist between sexes and sports. In addition, the CKCUEST and UQYBT appear to measure different constructs of performance and may complement each other as part of a screening battery.