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Tom Loney, Martyn Standage, Dylan Thompson, Simon J. Sebire and Sean Cumming

Background:

To examine the agreement between self-reported and objectively assessed physical activity (PA) according to current public health recommendations.

Methods:

One-hundred and fourteen British University students wore a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart; AHR) to estimate 24-hour energy expenditure over 7 consecutive days. Data were extracted based on population-based MET-levels recommended to improve and maintain health. On day 8, participants were randomly assigned to complete either the short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) or the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ). Estimates of duration (IPAQ; N = 46) and frequency (LTEQ; N = 41) of PA were compared with those recorded by the AHR.

Results:

Bland-Altman analysis showed the mean bias between the IPAQ and AHR to be small for moderate-intensity and total PA, however the 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were wide. The mean number of moderate bouts of PA estimated by the LTEQ was similar to those derived by the AHR but the 95% LOA between the 2 measures were large.

Conclusions:

Although self-report questionnaires may provide an approximation of PA at a population level, they may not determine whether an individual is participating in the type, intensity, and amount of PA advocated in current public health recommendations.

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Kent C. Kowalski, Peter R.E. Crocker and Robert A. Faulkner

Two studies assessed the validity of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), a 7-day recall that assesses general moderate to vigorous physical activity levels during the school year. The first study, involving 89 elementary school students in Grades 4–8, investigated convergent, divergent, and construct validity. The PAQ-C was moderately related to an activity rating (r = .63), week summation of 24-hr moderate to vigorous activity recalls (r = .53), a teacher’s rating of physical activity (r = .45), and perceptions of athletic competence (r = .48). As expected, the PAQ-C was not related to perceptions of behavioral conduct. The second study, involving 97 elementary school students, investigated convergent and construct validity. The PAQ-C was moderately related to an activity rating (r = .57), the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (r = .41), a Caltrac motion sensor (r = .39), a 7-day physical activity recall interview (r = .46) and a step test of fitness (r = .28). The PAQ-C validity coefficients were as high as or greater than the 7-day recall interview. These two studies support the validity of the PAQ-C as a method of assessing older children’s general physical activity levels.

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Michelle C. Kegler, Iris Alcantara, Regine Haardörfer, Alexandra Gemma, Denise Ballard and Julie Gazmararian

Background:

Physical activity levels, including walking, are lower in the southern U.S., particularly in rural areas. This study investigated the concept of rural neighborhood walkability to aid in developing tools for assessing walkability and to identify intervention targets in rural communities.

Methods:

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with physically active adults (n = 29) in rural Georgia. Mean age of participants was 55.9 years; 66% were male, 76% were white, and 24% were African American. Participants drew maps of their neighborhoods and discussed the relevance of typical domains of walkability to their decisions to exercise. Comparative analyses were conducted to identify major themes.

Results:

The majority felt the concept of neighborhood was applicable and viewed their neighborhood as small geographically (less than 0.5 square miles). Sidewalks were not viewed as essential for neighborhood-based physical activity and typical destinations for walking were largely absent. Destinations within walking distance included neighbors’ homes and bodies of water. Views were mixed on whether shade, safety, dogs, and aesthetics affected decisions to exercise in their neighborhoods.

Conclusions:

Measures of neighborhood walkability in rural areas should acknowledge the small size of self-defined neighborhoods, that walking in rural areas is likely for leisure time exercise, and that some domains may not be relevant.

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Erin White, Jim Pivarnik and Karin Pfeiffer

Background:

Approximately 10% of women engage in resistance training during pregnancy; however there is limited research on this activity. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between resistance training and adverse outcomes.

Methods:

Women completed an online survey and recalled their exercise habits during each trimester of their most recent pregnancy within the previous 5 years. Women also reported pregnancy and birth outcomes. Participants were then categorized into 3 groups based on leisure-time exercise: 1) Resistance + aerobic training (RTAE), 2) Aerobic exercise only (AE), and 3) no exercise (NE).

Results:

284 women completed the survey. Women in the RTAE group resistance trained on average 2.9 days/week for 27.3 minutes/session. The prevalences of hypertensive disorders (HD) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were significantly lower in the RTAE group when compared with the grouping of AE + NE women. Prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) was the strongest factor related to both GDM and HD. There was no difference in the risk of preterm labor, mode of delivery, or gestational age at delivery by exercise status.

Conclusions:

Our results suggest that women can safely engage in aerobic exercise and resistance training for muscular endurance 3 days/week for 30 minutes throughout gestation.

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* Andrew T. Wolanin * Donald R. Marks * Shiloh M. Eastin * 9 2016 10 3 192 205 10.1123/jcsp.2014-0023 Withdrawn Behavior, Leisure-Time Exercise Behavior, and Screen-Time Sedentary Behavior in a Clinical Sample of Youth Meghan Schreck * Robert Althoff * Meike Bartels * Eco de Geus * Jeremy

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Holsgaard-Larsen * Paolo Caserotti * Lis Puggaard * Per Aagaard * 4 2011 19 2 117 136 10.1123/japa.19.2.117 The Effect of Guided Relaxation and Exercise Imagery on Self-Reported Leisure-Time Exercise Behaviors in Older Adults Bang Hyun Kim * Roberta A. Newton * Michael L. Sachs * Peter R

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Exercise Psychology Cross-Lagged Relationships among Leisure-Time Exercise and Perceived Stress in Blue-Collar Workers Rafer S. Lutz * Marc R. Lochbaum * Beth Lanning * Lucinda G. Stinson * Ronda Brewer * 12 2007 29 6 687 705 10.1123/jsep.29.6.687 Research Exercise Makes You Feel Good

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Stephen Tremblay * 15 4 263 268 10.1123/jpah.2016-0382 jpah.2016-0382 The Relationship Between the Stanford Leisure-Time Activity Categorical Item and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire Among Rural Intervention Participants of Varying Health Literacy Status Natalie Kružliaková * Paul A

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Exercise? Leisure-Time Exercise Behavior, Exercise Motivation, and Exercise Dependence in Youth Danielle Symons Downs * Jennifer S. Savage * Jennifer M. DiNallo * 2 2013 10 10 2 2 176 176 184 184 10.1123/jpah.10.2.176 Examining the Impact of 45 Minutes of Daily Physical Education on Cognitive Ability

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Kamijo * Masami Murakami * 1 2009 6 1 55 62 10.1123/jpah.6.1.55 Baby Steps: Pedometer-Determined and Self-Reported Leisure-Time Exercise Behaviors of Pregnant Women Danielle Symons Downs * Guy C. LeMasurier * Jennifer M. DiNallo * 1 2009 6 1 63 72 10.1123/jpah.6.1.63 Prevalence and Correlates of