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Sandra J. Shultz and David H. Perrin

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Kazunori Yasuda, Harukazu Tohyama and Masayuki Inoue

Studies on the effect of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury on muscle performance have demonstrated that the normal PCL accommodates sensory nerve endings with capabilities that provide the central nervous system with information about characteristics of movement and position-related stretches of the PCL. Concerning the effect of PCL injury on performance of the quadriceps and hamstrings, there is disagreement in the literature. If there is an effect in the PCL-deficient knee, it is not as simple as that in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee. Electromyographic studies have demonstrated that the gastrocnemius muscle is significantly activated during walking and isokinetic motion in the involved knee, as compared with the uninvolved knee. Results of a gait-analytic study suggested that there are significant differences in gait cycle between PCL-deficient and normal knees. These phenomena might be part of the compensatory mechanism in PCL-deficient knees, but the data on the effect of PCL injury on muscle performance remain insufficient at the present time.

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Erik A. Wikstrom, Robert B. Anderson and Tricia Hubbard-Turner

Those with posttraumatic ankle osteoarthritis have a variety of sensorimotor impairments. However, no investigation has determined the effect of posttraumatic ankle osteoarthritis on stair climbing. The purpose of this study was to determine if stair ascent and descent kinetics are altered in those with posttraumatic ankle osteoarthritis. Those with posttraumatic ankle osteoarthritis had lower self-reported function than age-matched controls. Normalized peak vertical ground reaction forces during the weight acceptance phase of stair ascent and descent were also different between groups. The results suggest that those with ankle osteoarthritis have a reduced ability to control their body mass while stair climbing.

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Frank C. Mendel, Michael G. Dolan, Dale R. Fish, John Marzo and Gregory E. Wilding

Context:

High-voltage pulsed current (HVPC), a form of electrical stimulation, is known to curb edema formation in laboratory animals and is commonly applied for ankle sprains, but the clinical effects remain undocumented.

Objective:

To determine whether, as an adjunct to routine acute and subacute care, subsensory HVPC applied nearly continuously for the first 72 h after lateral ankle sprains affected time lost to injury.

Design:

Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Setting:

Data were collected at 9 colleges and universities and 1 professional training site.

Participants:

50 intercollegiate and professional athletes.

Interventions:

Near-continuous live or placebo HVPC for 72 h postinjury in addition to routine acute and subacute care.

Main Outcome Measure:

Time lost to injury measured from time of injury until declared fit to play.

Results:

Overall, time lost to injury was not different between treated and control groups (P = .55). However, grade of injury was a significant factor. Time lost to injury after grade I lateral ankle sprains was greater for athletes receiving live HVPC than for those receiving placebo HVPC (P = .049), but no differences were found between groups for grade II sprains (P = .079).

Conclusions:

Application of subsensory HVPC had no clinically meaningful effect on return to play after lateral ankle sprain.

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Anis Rostami, Amir Letafatkar, Alli Gokeler and Mehdi Khaleghi Tazji

Injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common ligament injuries during sports activities. 1 ACL injury is associated with long recovery times and high socioeconomic costs. 2 Approximately 70% of ACL injury mechanisms are noncontact 2 and commonly occur in sports such

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Bradley S. Beardt, Myranda R. McCollum, Taylour J. Hinshaw, Jacob S. Layer, Margaret A. Wilson, Qin Zhu and Boyi Dai

ACL injury prevention programs. Developing a screening system for identifying high-risk populations will provide information for improving training programs while decreasing the numbers-needed-to-treat for injury prevention. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries commonly occur during jump-landing tasks

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Dustin R. Grooms, Adam W. Kiefer, Michael A. Riley, Jonathan D. Ellis, Staci Thomas, Katie Kitchen, Christopher A. DiCesare, Scott Bonnette, Brooke Gadd, Kim D. Barber Foss, Weihong Yuan, Paula Silva, Ryan Galloway, Jed A. Diekfuss, James Leach, Kate Berz and Gregory D. Myer

intervention on anterior cruciate ligament injury risk reduction in young females: meta-analysis and subgroup analysis . Br J Sports Med . 2015 ; 49 ( 5 ): 282 – 289 . PubMed ID: 25452612 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2014-093461 25452612 10.1136/bjsports-2014-093461 2. Kiefer AW , Myer GD . Training the

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Anh-Dung Nguyen, Jeffrey B. Taylor, Taylor G. Wimbish, Jennifer L. Keith and Kevin R. Ford

: implications for anterior cruciated ligament injury . Scand J Med Sci Sports . 2012 ; 22 ( 4 ): 502 – 509 . PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01254.x 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01254.x 21210853 6. Chappell JD , Yu B , Kirkendall DT , Garrett WE . A comparison of knee kinetics between male and

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Hadi Akbari, Mansour Sahebozamani, Ablolhamid Daneshjoo, Mohammadtaghi Amiri-Khorasani and Yohei Shimokochi

cruciate ligament injuries in soccer: loading mechanisms, risk factors, and prevention programs . J Sport Health Sci . 2014 ; 3 ( 4 ): 299 – 306 . doi: 10.1016/j.jshs.2014.06.002 2. Alentorn-Geli E , Mendiguchía J , Samuelsson K , et al . Prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament