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Bryan Holtzman, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale and Kathryn E. Ackerman

menstrual dysfunction (MD) and low bone mineral density (BMD) resulting from LEA [with or without disordered eating (DE)], whereas RED-S expands on the many negative physiological and performance consequences of LEA ( De Souza et al., 2014 ; Mountjoy et al., 2014 ; Nattiv et al., 2007 ). Triad includes

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Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton and Adam S. Tenforde

reported a high prevalence of restrained eating practices and suboptimal EA from diet/exercise assessments of road cyclists; some have been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) ( Viner et al., 2015 ), pressure to lose weight ( Filaire et al., 2007 ), and achievement of the diagnostic criteria for

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Paige E. Rice, Herman van Werkhoven, Edward K. Merritt and Jeffrey M. McBride

.1519/JSC.0b013e3182163085 50. Amorim T , Wyon M , Maia J , et al . Prevalence of low bone mineral density in female dancers . Sports Med . 2015 ; 45 ( 2 ): 257 – 268 . PubMed ID: 25281333 doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0268-5 10.1007/s40279-014-0268-5 25281333 51. Stojanovic E , Ristic V

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Ina Garthe and Ronald J. Maughan

Situations Where Athletes Should Consider Using Dietary Supplements Where specific nutrient deficiencies have been identified by appropriate investigations Where the consequences of chronic inadequate energy intake have been established, including menstrual dysfunction and low bone mineral density During

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Nura Alwan, Samantha L. Moss, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Ian G. Davies and Kevin Enright

, aetiologies, and clinical consequences of LEA, readers are directed to the review by Loucks et al. ( 2011 ). Prolonged periods of LEA with or without DE, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density are termed the Female Athlete Triad, representing a medical condition observed in females who perform

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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

). Influence of sports participation on bone health in the young athlete: A review of the literature . PM&R, 3 , 861 – 867 . 10.1016/j.pmrj.2011.05.019 Tenforde , A.S. , Fredericson , M. , Sayres , L.C. , Cutti , P. , & Sainani , K.L. ( 2015 ). Identifying sex-specific risk factors for low bone

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols

-question screening tool developed by the Female Athlete Triad Coalition (see Figure  4 ) to identify risk of disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (see Figure  5 ) ( De Souza et al., 2014 ). Figure 4 —Recommended Questions for the Female Athlete Triad Coalition, 2014

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Pooja Somasundaram and Alexandra M. Burgess

disordered eating symptomology ( Coelho, Soares, & Ribeiro, 2010 ). Female Athlete Triad, which includes disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, can lead to significant long term health consequences such as hypertension, low bone mineral density, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and sometimes