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Judy L. Van Raalte, Lorraine Wilson, Allen Cornelius and Britton W. Brewer

sport of SCUBA diving are particularly interesting, because failure to execute SCUBA diving skills correctly can result in injury or even death. Mask clearing is one of many fundamental SCUBA diving skills. SCUBA divers must clear their masks when water leaks into the mask, which can happen under

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Geoff Minett, Rob Duffield and Stephen P. Bird


To investigate the effects of an acute multinutrient supplement on game-based running performance, peak power output, anaerobic by-products, hormonal profiles, markers of muscle damage, and perceived muscular soreness before, immediately after, and 24 h following competitive rugby union games.


Twelve male rugby union players ingested either a comprehensive multinutrient supplement (SUPP), [RE-ACTIVATE:01], or a placebo (PL) for 5 d. Participants then performed a competitive rugby union game (with global positioning system tracking), with associated blood draws and vertical jump assessments pre, immediately post and 24 h following competition.


SUPP ingestion resulted in moderate to large effects for augmented 1st half very high intensity running (VHIR) mean speed (5.9 ± 0.4 vs 4.8 ± 2.3 m·min−1; d = 0.93). Further, moderate increases in 2nd half VHIR distance (137 ± 119 vs 83 ± 89 m; d = 0.73) and VHIR mean speed (5.9 ± 0.6 v 5.3 ± 1.7 m·min−1; d = 0.56) in SUPP condition were also apparent. Postgame aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 44.1 ± 11.8 vs 37.0 ± 3.2 UL; d = 1.16) and creatine kinase (CK; 882 ± 472 vs. 645 ± 123 UL; d = 0.97) measures demonstrated increased values in the SUPP condition, while AST and CK values correlated with 2nd half VHIR distance (r = −0.71 and r = −0.76 respectively). Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) was observed postgame in both conditions; however, it was significantly blunted with SUPP (P = .05).


These findings suggest SUPP may assist in the maintenance of VHIR during rugby union games, possibly via the buffering qualities of SUPP ingredients. However, correlations between increased work completed at very high intensities and muscular degradation in SUPP conditions, may mask any anticatabolic properties of the supplement.

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Xiao Bao, Jie-Wen Tan, Ying Long, Howe Liu and Hui-Yu Liu

informed consent. Intermittent Hypoxia Intervention Normobaric hypoxia condition was applied by exposing subjects to 5 cycles of 10% O 2 for 5 minutes followed by room air for 5 minutes. Subjects will inspire hypoxic air through an air-cushioned disposable face mask or room air directed by a 3-way valve

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Adam M. Hyde, Robert G. McMurray, Frank A. Chavoya and Daniela A. Rubin ). Total body fat (TBF) and lean body mass (LBM) excluding bone were measured via whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry scan (Lunar Prodigy Advance; GE Healthcare, Madison, WI). Metabolic and Respiratory Measurements Participants were fitted with an oronasal mask (model 7450; Hans Rudolph, Shawnee, KS) with

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Cynthia J. Wright, Nico G. Silva, Erik E. Swartz and Brent L. Arnold

the floor. Participants were told the goal was to remove the face mask as quickly as possible while minimizing head motion. This goal was repeated between each trial, so participants were mindful of both aspects of performance (minimizing motion and speed). Participants were not given a normal or

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Bareket Falk and Raffy Dotan

-clip) combination has been the dominant setup. Its main advantage has been superior leak-proof operation, but this constrained breathing mode may be stressful to some. Breathing masks avoid that distress but cannot always guarantee proper seal. Current masks are better form-fitting and more leak-proof than earlier

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VERSION FOR YOUR PERUSAL: YOU MUST TAKE THIS QUIZ ONLINE. 1. What was one of the exclusion criteria for the elevation training mask (ETM) Critically Appraised Topic (CAT) by Cox et al.? a. Studies authored by the originator of the ETM b. Studies including VO 2 max as an outcome measure c. Studies using

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David Morawetz, Tobias Dünnwald, Martin Faulhaber, Hannes Gatterer and Wolfgang Schobersberger

) preconditioning phase. In the first trial, pure oxygen was administered to group I1 (FiO 2  = 1.0), whereas group I0 breathed chamber air equal to 3500 m (nonhyperoxic). Both groups breathed through a mask. During the final minute of the preconditioning phase, capillary blood (t2) was collected and analyzed

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Piaolin Peng, Shaolan Ding, Zhikang Wang, Yifan Zhang and Jiahao Pan

trial) were measured. Masks analysis of insoles was performed by dividing the plantar surface into 7 anatomical regions including heel, midfoot, medial forefoot, central forefoot, lateral forefoot, great toe, and lesser toes. 25 The effect of midsole material on plantar pressure was quantified using

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Marco Van Brussel, Bart C. Bongers, Erik H.J. Hulzebos, Marcella Burghard and Tim Takken

operating procedures or fit the standard CPET equipment (eg, face masks, cycle ergometer) or consumables (electrocardiogram electrodes). Indeed, while equipment or consumables, protocols (see below), and reference values ( 9 ) should be age and weight appropriate, there is a lack of robust reference values