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Adam M. Hyde, Robert G. McMurray, Frank A. Chavoya and Daniela A. Rubin

.cdc.gov/dnpabmi/Calculator.aspx ). Total body fat (TBF) and lean body mass (LBM) excluding bone were measured via whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry scan (Lunar Prodigy Advance; GE Healthcare, Madison, WI). Metabolic and Respiratory Measurements Participants were fitted with an oronasal mask (model 7450; Hans Rudolph, Shawnee, KS) with

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Cynthia J. Wright, Nico G. Silva, Erik E. Swartz and Brent L. Arnold

the floor. Participants were told the goal was to remove the face mask as quickly as possible while minimizing head motion. This goal was repeated between each trial, so participants were mindful of both aspects of performance (minimizing motion and speed). Participants were not given a normal or

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Bareket Falk and Raffy Dotan

-clip) combination has been the dominant setup. Its main advantage has been superior leak-proof operation, but this constrained breathing mode may be stressful to some. Breathing masks avoid that distress but cannot always guarantee proper seal. Current masks are better form-fitting and more leak-proof than earlier

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David Morawetz, Tobias Dünnwald, Martin Faulhaber, Hannes Gatterer and Wolfgang Schobersberger

) preconditioning phase. In the first trial, pure oxygen was administered to group I1 (FiO 2  = 1.0), whereas group I0 breathed chamber air equal to 3500 m (nonhyperoxic). Both groups breathed through a mask. During the final minute of the preconditioning phase, capillary blood (t2) was collected and analyzed

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Marco Van Brussel, Bart C. Bongers, Erik H.J. Hulzebos, Marcella Burghard and Tim Takken

operating procedures or fit the standard CPET equipment (eg, face masks, cycle ergometer) or consumables (electrocardiogram electrodes). Indeed, while equipment or consumables, protocols (see below), and reference values ( 9 ) should be age and weight appropriate, there is a lack of robust reference values

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Paula R. Mesquita, Silvia G.R. Neri, Ricardo M. Lima, Eliane F. Manfio and Ana C. de David

recorded for both feet, 12 with the mean value of each foot used for analyses. In order to measure running foot loads, the same protocol was applied. The software EMED/R—Database Light 23.3.43 was used to construct feet masks of each participant for both walking and running. The masks were developed to

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David Morawetz, Tobias Dünnwald, Martin Faulhaber, Hannes Gatterer, Lukas Höllrigl, Christian Raschner and Wolfgang Schobersberger

administered pure oxygen to I1 (FiO 2  = 1.0), whereas I0 breathed chamber air (equal to 3500 m). All participants breathed through a mask. Capillary blood (t2) was collected and analyzed again during the last minute of the preconditioning phase. Immediately after the 5-minute preconditioning phase, subjects

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Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri, André Bonadias Gadelha, Ana Luiza Matias Correia, Juscélia Cristina Pereira, Ana Cristina de David and Ricardo M. Lima

masks for of each participant. The masks were developed to produce 6 anatomical regions (whole foot, rearfoot, midfoot, forefoot, hallux and lesser toes) considering the whole stance phase of gait. The masking process for all participants was completed by the primary author, with previous research

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Hiroaki Hobara, Sakiko Saito, Satoru Hashizume, Hiroyuki Sakata and Yoshiyuki Kobayashi

largely unknown. By using group-based analysis, a previous study showed that the average velocity for a 100-m sprint in unilateral transtibial amputees significantly correlated with step frequency rather than with step length. 5 However, an average group-based analysis can actually mask important issues

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Ben Larkin and Janet S. Fink

hostile attitudes toward out-groups associated with collective narcissism masks the potential of unpretentious and noncontingent positive in-group regard to predict positive attitudes toward out-groups ( Golec de Zavala, Cichocka, & Bilewicz, 2013 , p. 25). Sport researchers have long demonstrated a