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Jonathan Sinclair and Paul J. Taylor

minimum of 20 ft away from the force platform. Cut angles were measured from the center of the force plate, and the corresponding line of movement was delineated using masking tape so that it was clearly evident to participants. The stance phase of the cut movement was similarly defined as the duration

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Natalia Romero-Franco, Juan Antonio Montaño-Munuera, Juan Carlos Fernández-Domínguez and Pedro Jiménez-Reyes

explanation of experimental procedures, subjects were in a sitting position at 90° of knee flexion as a starting position. Their eyes were covered by a mask to block their visual inputs. Four nonreflective markers were placed on the dominant limb: (1) over the apex of the great trochanter, (2) at the

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Cindy N. Nguyen, Reuben N. Clements, Lucas A. Porter, Nicole E. Clements, Matthew D. Gray, Dustin J. Killian and Russell T. Baker

which could mask impairment in a concussed individual. As is the case in most studies, multiple limitations were present in our study. We were unable to control for many factors including diet, sleep patterns, or activity levels of participants on testing days. While it is possible these issues could

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Barıs Seven, Gamze Cobanoglu, Deran Oskay and Nevin Atalay-Guzel

concentric mode and at 90°/s eccentric mode. In addition, for each wrist, the peak torque rates for unilateral extension/flexion were calculated at both angular velocities. Wrist proprioception was evaluated as active joint position sense (AJPS). To prevent visual input, all subjects wore eye masks during

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Takuma Hoshiba, Hiroki Nakata, Yasuaki Saho, Kazuyuki Kanosue and Toru Fukubayashi

subjects performed 2 assessments of knee position sense, the position-reproducing and position-matching tasks. The same starting position was used for both tasks, with subjects sitting in a comfortable chair, wearing an eye mask to eliminate visual feedback of knee position, and with knees flexed to 90

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Sarah P. Shultz, Jinsup Song, Andrew P. Kraszewski, Jocelyn F. Hafer, Smita Rao, Sherry Backus, Rajshree M. Hillstrom and Howard J. Hillstrom

individual plantar regions of a 12-segment mask for each trial 29 ; an average value across all 5 trials was used in the statistical analysis. Foot function variables included peak pressure (N / cm 2 ), maximum force (N), pressure time integral (N · s / cm 2 ), force time integral (N · s), and maximum

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Stephen M. Glass, Christopher K. Rhea, Matthew W. Wittstein, Scott E. Ross, John P. Florian and F.J. Haran

hypermetropia (ie, images become severely blurred and unfocused) and the eye loses about two-thirds of its refractive power. 13 , 14 Diving masks restore the air-to-cornea interface allowing for high underwater acuity; however, they produce a refraction at their outer surface, which results in a narrowing of

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Richard J. Boergers, Thomas G. Bowman, Nicole Sgherza, Marguerite Montjoy, Melanie Lu and Christopher W. O’Brien

( 1 ): 42 – 48 . PubMed ID: 24377964 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-48.6.11 10.4085/1062-6050-48.6.11 24377964 11. Swartz E , Mihalik J , Beltz N , Day M , Decoster L . Face mask removal is safer than helmet removal for emergent airway access in American football . Spine J . 2014 ; 14 : 996

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Nili Steinberg, Roger Adams, Moshe Ayalon, Nadav Dotan, Shiri Bretter and Gordon Waddington

. Although both conditions eliminate visual feedback, in the WB AMEDA testing the participants could follow the natural anatomical posture and look straight forward. Different visual conditions during proprioceptive testing have the potential to mask clinically meaningful differences in proprioceptive acuity

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Elizabeth F. Teel, Stephen W. Marshall, L. Gregory Appelbaum, Claudio L. Battaglini, Kevin A. Carneiro, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, Johna K. Register-Mihalik and Jason P. Mihalik

for a respiratory mask, and seat height was adjusted for proper pedaling mechanics on the cycle ergometer. Participants underwent the earliest stages of the CPET following a warm-up at no resistance to minimize any learning effect associated with subsequent CPET administrations. Test sessions were