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Edgar R. Vieira and Helenice J.C.G. Coury

Context:

Research and clinical recordings of lumbar flexion demand practicable and precise methodology for quantifying variations.

Objective:

To describe and evaluate the parallel reliability of 2 methods of measuring lumbar fexion—perpendicular stick markers (SM) and the distanciometer (DM)—using an electrogoniometer (EGM) as reference.

Design:

Parallel measurement for reliability.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

25 healthy men.

Intervention:

Simultaneous measure of lumbar flexion at preestablished positions (0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°).

Outcome Measures:

Data from SM and DM, recorded simultaneously.

Results:

High parallel reliability was found when comparing the EGM data with the SM (r = .997; measurement error: 0.6° ± 0.7°; no differences: t-test P = .260) and with the DM (r = .962; measurement error: 2.8° ± 1.9°; no differences: t-test P = .973).

Conclusions:

Considering the reliability, practicability, and low cost of the described methods, they can be regarded as applicable and useful.

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Craig R. Denegar and Donald W. Ball

The reliability and precision of measurement in sports medicine are of concern in both research and clinical practice. The validity of conclusions drawn from a research project and the rationale for decisions made about the care of an injured athlete are directly related to the precision of measurement. Through analysis of variance, estimates of reliability and precision of measurement can be quantified. The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce the concepts of intraclass correlation as an estimate of reliability and standard error of measurement as an estimate of precision. The need for a standardized set of formulas for intraclass correlation is demonstrated, and it is urged that the standard error of measurement be included when estimates of reliability are reported. In addition, three examples are provided to illustrate important concepts and familiarize the reader with the process of calculating these estimates of reliability and precision of measurement.

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Justin W.Y. Lee, Ming-Jing Cai, Patrick S.H. Yung and Kai-Ming Chan

measures for players with increased risk of new injury and reinjury. Based on the result, coaches would be able to monitor and to provide individualized training program. A variety of measurement tools to be used in either the laboratory or the field are available to practitioners to quantify hamstring

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Jacob A. Goldsmith, Cameron Trepeck, Jessica L. Halle, Kristin M. Mendez, Alex Klemp, Daniel M. Cooke, Michael H. Haischer, Ryan K. Byrnes, Robert F. Zoeller, Michael Whitehurst and Michael C. Zourdos

Barbell velocity can be used to autoregulate training variables by using velocity to gauge daily intensity instead of percentage of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) due to daily fluctuations in strength levels. However, the utility of velocity is dependent on the measurement device’s accuracy. Linear

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José Pino-Ortega, Alejandro Hernández-Belmonte, Carlos D. Gómez-Carmona, Alejandro Bastida-Castillo, Javier García-Rubio and Sergio J. Ibáñez

movement alteration or postural adjustments. 14 Advances in technology have facilitated the development of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) that is composed of different sensors (accelerometers, gyroscopes, magnetometers, etc) in the same device. 15 Most sensors that make up these devices are capable of

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Peter Olusoga, Marte Bentzen and Goran Kentta

literature within the field of coach burnout is still relatively modest, yet is considerably varied when it comes to theoretical framework, study design, and measurement. Scoping reviews are argued to be suitable in these situations, as they allow greater flexibility to include a wider range of types of

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Michael J. LaMonte, I-Min Lee, Eileen Rillamas-Sun, John Bellettiere, Kelly R. Evenson, David M. Buchner, Chongzhi Di, Cora E. Lewis, Dori E. Rosenberg, Marcia L. Stefanick and Andrea Z. LaCroix

( Healy et al., 2011 ; Sallis & Saelens, 2000 ), particularly so in women, in older adults, and in race/ethnic minorities ( Masse et al., 1998 ; van Uffelen, Heesch, Hill, & Brown, 2011 ). There is increasing use of device measurements of PA and SB, which offer the potential for reducing exposure

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James R. Chagdes, Joshua J. Liddy, Amanda J. Arnold, Laura J. Claxton and Jeffrey M. Haddad

portable force-measurement technologies to address developmental questions. Collecting CoP Using Portable Force-Measurement Technologies Research-grade force plates are often instrumented with strain gauge or piezoelectric force sensors, which are considered the gold-standard due to their precision and

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Matthew T. Crill, Christopher P. Kolba and Gary S. Chleboun

Context:

The lunge is commonly used to assess lower extremity strength, flexibility, and balance, yet few objective data exist on it.

Objectives:

To determine the reliability of the lunge test, determine whether there are gender differences associated with it, and study the relationships between lunge distance and height and leg length.

Design:

Single-factor repeated measures.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

57: 29 men, 28 women.

Main Outcome Measures:

Anterior lunge (AL) and lateral lunge (LL) distance, height, and leg length (cm).

Results:

LL distance (131.3 ± 12.3) is significantly greater than AL distance (113.7 ± 17.2) in men and in women (LL 113.6 ± 10.5, AL 96.6 ± 11.1). There was no significant correlation for height or leg length to any lunge measurement in men or women.

Conclusion:

The lunge can be used as a reliable test to measure lower extremity function. Right- and left-leg lunge distances should not differ, and LL will always be greater than AL.

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Loren Z.F. Chiu, Brian K. Schilling, Andrew C. Fry and Lawrence W. Weiss

Displacement-based measurement systems are becoming increasingly popular for assessment of force expression variables during resistance exercise. Typically a linear position transducer (LPT) is attached to the barbell to measure displacement and a double differentiation technique is used to determine acceleration. Force is calculated as the product of mass and acceleration. Despite the apparent utility of these devices, validity data are scarce. To determine whether LPT can accurately estimate vertical ground reaction forces, two men and four women with moderate to extensive resistance training experience performed concentric-only (CJS) and rebound (RJS) jump squats, two sessions of each type in random order. CJS or RJS were performed with 30%, 50%, and 70% one-repetition maximum parallel back squat 5 minutes following a warm-up and again after a 10-min rest. Displacement was measured via LPT and acceleration was calculated using the finite-difference technique. Force was estimated from the weight of the lifter-barbell system and propulsion force from the lifter-barbell system. Vertical ground reaction force was directly measured with a single-component force platform. Two-way random average-measure intraclass correlations (ICC) were used to assess the reliability of obtained measures and compare the measurements obtained via each method. High reliability (ICC > 0.70) was found for all CJS variables across the load-spectrum. RJS variables also had high ICC except for time parameters for early force production. All variables were significantly (p < 0.01) related between LPT and force platform methods with no indication of systematic bias. The LPT appears to be a valid method of assessing force under these experimental conditions.