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Brenda Bruner and Karen Chad

Background:

Overweight and obesity among Aboriginal women is a growing concern, with increasing prevalence rates linked to a sedentary lifestyle. Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for unhealthy body weight; however before addressing health enhancing behaviors, understanding lifestyle practices, attitudes and beliefs are important.

Methods:

A mixed methods approach assessed physical activity (PA) practices (n = 58), and attitudes and beliefs (n = 19) among First Nations women. The Modifiable Activity Questionnaire assessed PA, and a focused ethnography explored attitudes and beliefs.

Results:

Self-reported PA was highest in the youngest age group. Both total and leisure-time PA decreased when house-related activities were not accounted for. Younger participants reported sport-related activities, while older participants reported traditional activities (eg, berry picking, fishing). Participants’ believed PA promoted good health, yet personal (ie, lack of time), community-specific (ie, lack of opportunities/encouragement) and environmental (ie, inclement weather, safety) factors acted as barriers. Age-specific, women-only programs were highlighted as potential enablers.

Conclusions:

The findings highlight the need to assess cultural specific practices, attitudes and beliefs as PA programs that focus on reducing barriers identified in the community and are designed based on expressed interest and preferences may improve leisure-related PA levels among all age groups.

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Joanna M. Kesten, Russ Jago, Simon J. Sebire, Mark J. Edwards, Laura Pool, Jesmond Zahra and Janice L. Thompson

Background:

Interventions to increase children’s physical activity (PA) have achieved limited success. This may be attributed to inaccurate parental perceptions of their children’s PA and a lack of recognition of a need to change activity levels.

Methods:

Fifty-three parents participated in semistructured interviews to determine perceptions of child PA. Perceptions were compared with children’s measured MVPA (classified as meeting or not meeting UK guidelines) to produce 3 categories: “accurate,” “over-estimate,” and “under-estimate.” Deductive content analysis was performed to understand the accuracy of parental perceptions.

Results:

All parents of children meeting the PA guidelines accurately perceived their child’s PA; while the majority of parents whose child did not meet the guidelines overestimated their PA. Most parents were unconcerned about their child’s PA level, viewing them as naturally active and willing to be active. Qualitative explanations for perceptions of insufficient activity included children having health problems and preferences for inactive pursuits, and parents having difficulty facilitating PA in poor weather and not always observing their child’s PA level. Social comparisons also influenced parental perceptions.

Conclusions:

Strategies to improve parental awareness of child PA are needed. Perceptions of child PA may be informed by child “busyness,” being unaware of activity levels, and social comparisons.

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Liam D. Harper and Robert McCunn

Recent work has espoused the idea that in applied sporting environments, “fast”-working practitioners should work together with “slow”-working researchers. However, due to economical and logistical constraints, such a coupling may not always be practical. Therefore, alternative means of combining research and applied practice are needed. A particular methodology that has been used in recent years is qualitative research. Examples of qualitative methods include online surveys, 1-on-1 interviews, and focus groups. This article discusses the merits of using qualitative methods to combine applied practice and research in sport science. This includes a discussion of recent examples of the use of such methods in published journal articles, a critique of the approaches employed, and future directions and recommendations. The authors encourage both practitioners and researchers to use and engage with qualitative research with the ultimate goal of benefiting athlete health and sporting performance.

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Helen J. Moore, Catherine A. Nixon, Amelia A. Lake, Wayne Douthwaite, Claire L. O’Malley, Claire L. Pedley, Carolyn D. Summerbell and Ashley C. Routen

Background:

Evidence suggests that many contemporary urban environments do not support healthy lifestyle choices and are implicated in the obesity pandemic. Middlesbrough, in the northeast of England is one such environment and a prime target for investigation.

Methods:

To measure physical activity (PA) levels in a sample of 28 adolescents (aged 11 to 14 years) and describe the environmental context of their activity and explore where they are most and least active over a 7-day period, accelerometry and Global Positioning System (GPS) technology were used. Twenty-five of these participants also took part in focus groups about their experiences and perceptions of PA engagement.

Results:

Findings indicated that all participants were relatively inactive throughout the observed period although bouts of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were identified in 4 contexts: school, home, street, and rural/urban green spaces, with MVPA levels highest in the school setting. Providing access to local facilities and services (such as leisure centers) is not in itself sufficient to engage adolescents in MVPA.

Conclusion:

Factors influencing engagement in MVPA were identified within and across contexts, including ‘time’ as both a facilitator and barrier, perceptions of ‘gendered’ PA, and the social influences of peer groups and family members.

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Emily Bremer and Meghann Lloyd

The purpose of this pilot study was to demonstrate the impact of a fundamentalmotor-skill (FMS) intervention on the motor skills of 3- to 7-year-old children with autism-like characteristics in an early intervention classroom. A secondary purpose was to qualitatively assess the impact of the program as described by the classroom’s special education teacher. All children in the classroom (N = 5) took part in an FMS intervention for two 6-wk blocks (fall 2013 and winter 2014). Motor-skill proficiency and social skills were assessed at 3 times: baseline, after Block 1 of the intervention, and after Block 2 of the intervention. In addition, an interview was conducted with the classroom teacher after Assessment 3 to draw further insights into the relative success and impact of the program. Results were analyzed through a visual analysis and presented individually. They indicated improvements in the participants’ individual FMS and social-skill scores, possible improvements in declarative knowledge, and an increase in the special education teacher’s readiness to teach FMS; further research with larger, controlled samples is warranted.

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Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, T. Michelle Magyar and Larry A. Scanlan

The Sport Commitment Model was further tested using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method to examine its generalizability to New Zealand’s elite female amateur netball team, the Silver Ferns. Results supported or clarified Sport Commitment Model predictions, revealed avenues for model expansion, and elucidated the functions of perceived competence and enjoyment in the commitment process. A comparison and contrast of the in-depth interview data from the Silver Ferns with previous interview data from a comparable elite team of amateur male athletes allowed assessment of model external validity, tested the generalizability of the underlying mechanisms, and separated gender differences from discrepancies that simply reflected team or idiosyncratic differences.

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Sheena S. Philip, Joy C. Macdermid, Saranya Nair, Dave Walton and Ruby Grewal

. This mixed method analysis will capture the risk factors for DRF from multiple dimensions, including patient perception. Objective To describe the factors that lead to a DRF, considering age, gender, mechanism of fracture, work status, and patient perception. Methods Ethics The study was reviewed and

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Cassandra J. de Lacy-Vawdon, Ruth Klein, Joanna Schwarzman, Genevieve Nolan, Renee de Silva, David Menzies and Ben J. Smith

features (e.g., intensity, location, type) but did not examine leader or social factors ( Hong, Hughes, & Prohaska, 2008 ). A recent mixed-methods review investigated factors associated with adherence to community-based group PA among older people in programs of 6 months’ duration or longer, however the

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Juliana Souza de Oliveira, Catherine Sherrington, Louise Rowling and Anne Tiedemann

associated with more frequent Strong Seniors class attendance. Methods Study Design and Participants We used a self-report survey and conducted a mixed-methods study among current Strong Seniors program participants. Study recruitment flyers were circulated via an e-mail list and also posted on a

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Frances Bevington, Katrina L. Piercy, Kate Olscamp, Sandra W. Hilfiker, Dena G. Fisher and Elizabeth Y. Barnett

significantly impact health status at the population level. To support the development of the Move Your Way campaign, ODPHP employed a mixed-methods research approach that included focus groups and an online survey to better understand how socioeconomic factors, disability, barriers and motivators, and