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Michael William Beets, Charles F. Morgan, Jorge A. Banda, Daniel Bornstein, Won Byun, Jonathan Mitchell, Lance Munselle, Laura Rooney, Aaron Beighle and Heather Erwin

Background:

Pedometer step-frequency thresholds (120 steps·min-1, SPM) corresponding to moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) have been proposed for youth. Pedometers now have internal mechanisms to record time spent at or above a user-specified SPM. If pedometers provide comparable MVPA (P-MVPA) estimates to those from accelerometry, this would have broad application for research and the general public. The purpose of this study was to examine the convergent validity of P-MVPA to accelerometer-MVPA for youth.

Methods:

Youth (N = 149, average 8.6 years, range 5 to 14 years, 60 girls) wore an accelerometer (5-sec epochs) and a pedometer for an average of 5.7 ± 0.8 hours·day-1. The following accelerometer cutpoints were used to compare P-MVPA: Treuth (TR), Mattocks (MT), Evenson (EV), Puyau (PU), and Freedson (FR) child equation. Comparisons between MVPA estimates were performed using Bland-Altman plots and paired t tests.

Results:

Overall, P-MVPA was 24.6 min ± 16.7 vs. TR 25.2 min ± 16.2, MT 18.8 min ± 13.3, EV 36.9 min ± 21.0, PU 22.7 min ± 15.1, and FR 50.4 min ± 25.5. Age-specific comparisons indicated for 10 to 14 year-olds MT, PU, and TR were not significantly different from P-MVPA; for the younger children (5−8 year- olds) P-MVPA consistently underestimated MVPA.

Conclusions:

Pedometer-determined MVPA provided comparable estimates of MVPA for older children (10−14 year-olds). Additional work is required to establish age appropriate SPM thresholds for younger children.

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Peng Zhang, Jung Eun Lee, David F. Stodden and Zan Gao

Physical activity (PA) of appropriate duration and intensity is associated with children’s cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and physiological health. 1 Public health recommendations for children and adolescent’s PA suggest a minimum 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) each

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Jesús Viciana, Daniel Mayorga-Vega and Alejandro Martínez-Baena

Background:

Primary and secondary school ages have been considered key moments to address the decrease of moderate-tovigorous physical activity (MVPA). Individual (eg, age, gender, and weight status) and contextual factors (moments of the day) need to be considered for a better explanation of the phenomenon. The quantity and quality of physical activity in Physical Education (PE), school recess (SR), and after school (AS) time need to be taken into account to solve the low levels of MVPA in youth.

Methods:

A sample of adolescents (N = 231, 14.6 ± 1.2 years old) was studied using accelerometry to determine the objective MVPA level in PE, SR, and AS.

Results:

Results indicated statistically significant differences on MVPA between contexts (AS > PE > SR, P < .001) as well as regarding the individual factors: age (older > younger in PE and younger > older in SR time; P < .001), gender (boys > girls in all contexts, P < .001), and weight status (overweight > nonoverweight in AS, P < .01).

Conclusions:

Because students did not meet the daily MVPA recommendations, some strategies have been provided in each of the contexts analyzed.

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Hyo Lee, Bradley J. Cardinal and Paul D. Loprinzi

Background:

Socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation are potential contributors of adolescent physical activity disparity among ethnic groups in the U.S. However, studies relying on self-report physical activity measures have reported inconsistent findings regarding sociocultural predictors of physical activity. Therefore, the current study examined the main and interactive effects of SES and acculturation on accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) among Mexican American adolescents.

Methods:

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004 was analyzed. Samples of 153 and 169 Mexican American boys and girls, respectively, were analyzed. SES was indicated by poverty-to-income ratio (PIR); and acculturation was measured by 5-item English preference scales and adolescent and parental country of birth. Regression models were tested separately for boys and girls.

Results:

U.S.-born boys compared with immigrants did more MVPA (β = .48, P < .01). On the contrary, the effect of English preference on MVPA in boys was negative (β = –.05, P < .01) and amplified by higher SES (β = –.02, P < .01). For girls, none of the tested variables were significant.

Conclusions:

Higher SES was a risk factor for physical inactivity in Mexican American adolescents, by a moderating mechanism. In addition, physical activity promotion efforts need to consider English speaking and immigrant Mexican American adolescent boys as a target population.

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Nina Verma, Robert C. Eklund, Calum A. Arthur, Timothy C. Howle and Ann-Marie Gibson

girls’ moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) via mediated effects of self-presentation motives (i.e., both acquisitive motives only), physical activity identity, and PE class engagement; (c) positive direct effects would be observed from both acquisitive self-presentational motives to physical

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Claire L. Cleland, Sara Ferguson, Paul McCrorie, Jasper Schipperijn, Geraint Ellis and Ruth F. Hunter

120 Note . LFE = low-frequency extension; LPA = light physical activity; MVPA = moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; NA = not applicable. a Number of hours in a valid day: 10 hr; and number of valid days in a valid week: 5 days (including one weekend day). Each of the processing criteria were

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Peter T. Katzmarzyk and Amanda E. Staiano

Physical activity guidelines for children and youth typically focus on increasing moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels. The current guidelines are relatively harmonized across countries and call for at least 60 minutes of MVPA daily in school-aged children. 1 , 2 In recent years

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Heidi J. Syväoja, Anna Kankaanpää, Jouni Kallio, Harto Hakonen, Janne Kulmala, Charles H. Hillman, Anu-Katriina Pesonen and Tuija H. Tammelin

.5% 305 13.1% 322 9.9% .21 Mother’s education (tertiary level education) 618 70.9% 301 74.4% 317 67.5% .06 Number of schools 9             Number of classes 84             Abbreviations: GPA, grade point average; MVPA, moderate to vigorous physical activity. a P -values for sex differences ( t test). b

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Deirdre Dlugonski, Katrina Drowatzky DuBose and Patrick Rider

used objective tools—global positioning system and accelerometer—to measure the shared physical activity. 28 These parents and older children (8–14 y) engaged in an average of only 2.4 minutes of shared moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during nonschool waking hours per day. 28 This is