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Melinda Asztalos, Greet Cardon, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij and Katrien De Cocker


Sedentary behavior (including sitting) is negatively associated with physical health, independent from physical activity (PA). Knowledge on the associations with mental health is less elaborated. Therefore this study aims to investigate the relationship between sitting and 5 indices of mental health in adults (psychological distress, depression, anxiety, somatization, and sleeping problems), and between sitting interactions (sitting×gender, sitting×age, sitting×education, and sitting×PA) and these mental health indices.


A cohort of Belgian adults (25–64 years; n = 4344) provided self-reported data on sitting and PA and on 5 mental health indices. Cross-sectional associations were examined using multiple linear regression analyses.


Analyses adjusted for gender, age, education, and PA showed significant positive associations between sitting and the 5 mental health indices (P < .05). All associations were true for both men and women, and for low and high educated individuals, while some were only found in older individuals (somatization, P < .001) and those being insufficiently active (psychological distress, P = .007; depression, P = .002; and anxiety, P = .014).


More sitting seems to be associated with poorer mental health, independently of gender, age, education, and PA. Moderation analyses showed that these associations may differ according to age and PA levels.

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Ryan E. Rhodes, Kerry S. Courneya and Leslie A. Hayduk

This study investigated the moderating influence of the five-factor model of personality (FFM) on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in the exercise domain. Although an analysis of all possible moderation effects was conducted, it was hypothesized that high extraversion (E) and conscientiousness (C) individuals would demonstrate significantly stronger relationships between intentions and exercise behavior than those low in E and C. Conversely, it was expected that high neuroticism (N) individuals would show a significantly weaker relationship between intention and exercise behavior than those low in N. A total of 300 undergraduate students completed measures of the FFM, TPB, and a 2-week follow-up of exercise behavior. Two-group structural equation models of the TPB were created using a median split for each personality trait. Overall, 5 significant (p < .05) moderating effects were found. Specifically, N was found to moderate the effect of subjective norm on intention. E also moderated the effects of subjective norm on intention as well as intention on behavior. C moderated the effects of affective attitude on intention and intention on behavior. Theorized influences for the presence or absence of personality moderators are discussed. The results generally support the possibility of personality being a moderator of the TPB but highlight the need for future research and replication.

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Gavin Breslin, Stephen Shannon, Kyle Ferguson, Shauna Devlin, Tandy Haughey and Garry Prentice

converting their values to z-scores, moderation effects of gender and individual/team sport on the relationships between mental health knowledge (MAKS1-6 summed), exposure to people with mental health problems (RIBS 1–4 summed), and recognition and familiarity with mental health conditions (MAKS 7–12 summed

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Pooja Somasundaram and Alexandra M. Burgess

with the most, and were subsequently assigned to that category for analysis. Following preliminary analyses, moderational analyses were conducted using the PROCESS macro for SPSS ( Hayes, 2013 ). The PROCESS macro is a user-friendly tool that performs a hierarchical regression-based analysis

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Xiaoxia Zhang, Xiangli Gu, Tao Zhang, Priscila Caçola and Jing Wang

the differences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic group means on each of the above 6 variables, after controlling for gender and age. The moderation effect of ethnicity (dummy-coded non-Hispanic origin = 0 and Hispanic = 1) was also examined by including all the interaction terms in the model before

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Stine Nylandsted Jensen, Andreas Ivarsson, Johan Fallby and Anne-Marie Elbe

, respectively). Moderation analyses, performed using the Process macro in SPSS ( Hayes, 2012 ), were for each independent variable. In those analyses age and age at which the players specialized in football were included as potential moderators for the effect between depression/anxiety and problematic

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Natalie Kružliaková, Paul A. Estabrooks, Wen You, Valisa Hedrick, Kathleen Porter, Michaela Kiernan and Jamie Zoellner

increasing reported L-Cat category and GLTEQ weekly moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and strengthening exercise. 36 However, relationships between L-Cat category and GLTEQ or moderation of changes by health literacy status have not been explored. SIPsmartER SIPsmartER focused on reducing SSB to 8 fluid ounces

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Johan Pelssers, Emalie Hurkmans, Jeroen Scheerder, Norbert Vanbeselaere, Steven Vos, Tim Smits and Filip Boen

associations of older adult exercise norms with exercise BNS (Hypothesis/Model 1), autonomous motivation (RAI; Hypothesis/Model 2), and participation (Hypothesis/Model 3), controlled for the moderation by older adult identification. BNS = basic needs satisfaction; RAI = relative autonomy index. Methods

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James Annesi

. Note: Analyses are 1 tailed. Moderation by Clinical Psychology Measures The score on the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids survey significantly moderated the prediction of change in self-regulation, by physical activity change (Table  3 ). The Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomology score

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Shijun Zhu, Eun-Shim Nahm, Barbara Resnick, Erika Friedmann, Clayton Brown, Jumin Park, Jooyoung Cheon and DoHwan Park

. Correlations between latent factors were not included for simplicity. i = intercept; s = slope; Exe = Yale exercise in kilocalories (outcome y: log transformed); SEE - Self-Efficacy for Exercise (mediator M); a, b, c, and c’ mediation notations. The moderation of mediation was examined after the mediation