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Digby Elliott, Timothy N. Welsh, James Lyons, Steve Hansen and Melinda Wu

Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder that causes general cognitive and developmental delays. Compared to persons with Down syndrome (DS) at the same developmental level, individuals with WS generally exhibit superior expressive language abilities, but have difficultly with tasks that require the visual control of movement. Recently it has been suggested that this latter problem reflects a deficit in dorsal stream function. In the present study, this hypothesis was investigated by examining the kinematics of rapid aiming movements. The performance of the participants with WS (n = 4) was compared to the performance of participants with DS (n = 8), with undifferentiated developmental delays (n = 8), and from the general population (n = 8). In partial support of the dorsal deficit hypothesis, the results suggest that, compared to people from the other groups, the participants with WS had difficulty in preparing their movements on the basis of the visual and other information available to them. This was particularly evident in their inability to properly scale movement velocities to the amplitude of the movements and in the number of discrete corrections made during movement execution.

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Femke van Abswoude, John van der Kamp and Bert Steenbergen

(early) motor learning. Instead of working memory supporting the accumulation of declarative knowledge and bringing about long-term learning, working memory and declarative knowledge may facilitate conscious control and monitoring of movement execution promoting short-term performance during practice. In

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Nicolas Robin, Lucette Toussaint, Eric Joblet, Emmanuel Roublot and Guillaume R. Coudevylle

between MI and actual movement. Vogt, Di Rienzo, Collet, Collins, and Guillot ( 2013 ) evoked that MI engages motor systems and that the cerebral plasticity resulting from real movement execution also occurs as a result of MI. For example, Ehrsson, Geyer, and Naito ( 2003 ) observed that MI of tongue

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Rahel Gilgen-Ammann, Thomas Wyss, Severin Troesch, Louis Heyer and Wolfgang Taube

Oftentimes athletes’ perception derived from intrinsic feedback is not sufficient to adequately judge their movement execution. 1 , 2 Therefore, specific information from an external source is necessary to gain a better understanding of a particular movement pattern or of certain aspects of a

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Swati M. Surkar, Rashelle M. Hoffman, Brenda Davies, Regina Harbourne and Max J. Kurz

lack of end-state comfort effect, which potentially indicates deficits in forward planning. This may have had cascading effects on the final movement execution since the children had an increased number of task failures during the second sequence of movement. The outcomes of this study imply that

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Cornelia Frank, Taeho Kim and Thomas Schack

rest of the BACs ( n  =15) are displayed one after another in randomized order. For each anchor concept being displayed together with one of the remaining BACs, participants are asked to decide on a yes/no basis whether the given BAC is related to the anchor concept or not during movement execution

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Bradley D. Hatfield

learning of a sequential maze learning task in which specific areas of the brain revealed lower activity after training, while other areas, specific to movement execution, revealed heightened activity. The participants practiced tracing a cut-out maze design with their eyes closed while scanned using

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Simone Ciaccioni, Laura Capranica, Roberta Forte, Helmi Chaabene, Caterina Pesce and Giancarlo Condello

movement execution was slow, and each technique learnt was repeated eight times for four sets. In the second cycle, the velocity of movement execution was moderate, and the techniques were repeated six times for six sets. Each training session comprised three phases: a 10-min judo-specific warm-up (e

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Benjamin Pageaux, Jean Theurel and Romuald Lepers

. Perception of effort reflects central motor command during movement execution . Psychophysiology . 2012 ( 49 ): 1242 – 1253 . 26. Pageaux B , Gaveau J . Studies using pharmacological blockade of muscle afferents provide new insights into the neurophysiology of perceived exertion . J Physiol . 2016

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Gerda Strutzenberger, Adam Brazil, Timothy Exell, Hans von Lieres und Wilkau, John D. Davies, Steffen Willwacher, Johannes Funken, Ralf Müller, Kai Heinrich, Hermann Schwameder, Wolfgang Potthast and Gareth Irwin

individual solutions within its movement execution than did the AB group. Current research suggests that the orientation of the resultant force vector is more important to sprint performance than the magnitudes of individual force components. 6 , 18 The RoF values of the AB participants in this study