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Durva Vahia, Adam Kelly, Harry Knapman and Craig A. Williams

nonfunctional overreaching and overtraining compared with recreational players ( 22 ). The Long-Term Athlete Development model classifies players aged 16–18 as in the “training to compete” phase of development with highly structured training ( 12 , 21 ). At this age, players are still developing their physical

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Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Romain Meeusen and Maria Francesca Piacentini

-distance swimmers . Eur J Appl Physiol . 2005 ; 94 ( 5–6 ): 697 – 704 . PubMed ID: 15887025 doi:10.1007/s00421-005-1337-0 15887025 10.1007/s00421-005-1337-0 6. Piacentini MF , Meeusen R . An online training-monitoring system to prevent nonfunctional overreaching . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2015

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Miranda J. Menaspà, Paolo Menaspà, Sally A. Clark and Maurizio Fanchini

future. Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2017 ; 12 ( suppl 2 ): 22 – 28 . PubMed ID: 28253038 doi:10.1123/IJSPP.2016-0388 10.1123/IJSPP.2016-0388 23. Piacentini MF , Meeusen R . An online training-monitoring system to prevent nonfunctional overreaching . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2015 ; 10

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Twan ten Haaf, Selma van Staveren, Danilo Iannetta, Bart Roelands, Romain Meeusen, Maria F. Piacentini, Carl Foster, Leo Koenderman, Hein A.M. Daanen and Jos J. de Koning

An imbalance between exercise load and recovery time results in maladaptation to physical training. This process is termed overtraining, which can lead to functional overreaching (FOR) or nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR) or overtraining syndrome. 1 , 2 FOR is sometimes intentionally induced in

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Travis Anderson, Amy R. Lane and Anthony C. Hackney

negative state of nonfunctional overreaching, 1 with continued overloads resulting in the overtraining syndrome. 3 Therefore, a balance exists between optimizing performance outcomes in a dose–response manner and preventing the negative consequences of overtraining. In this context, athletes and coaches

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Marcus J. Colby, Brian Dawson, Peter Peeling, Jarryd Heasman, Brent Rogalski, Michael K. Drew and Jordan Stares

exercised with this method due to mathematical coupling. 25 Table 1 Quantification of High-Risk Scenarios and Supporting Literature High-risk scenario Calculation Supporting literature Count of sessions exposed for the past “n” weeks Overload/nonfunctional overreaching  ACWR spike Very high ACWR as

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Kevin M. Carroll, Jake R. Bernards, Caleb D. Bazyler, Christopher B. Taber, Charles A. Stuart, Brad H. DeWeese, Kimitake Sato and Michael H. Stone

was unable to return to their baseline values for several variables (CMJH and early RFD). These findings demonstrate an impaired ability to fully recover in the RM group despite reduced training, which is indicative of nonfunctional overreaching. 42 Furthermore, these depressed performance variables

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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, Raúl Pernía, José G. Villa and Carl Foster

state of nonfunctional overreaching. Under these circumstances, the isolated assessment of HR or PO at a fixed submaximal PO or HR, respectively, may lead to misinterpretation of cyclists’ training status. However, if the RPE is taken into consideration, an increased score at a fixed PO or a decreased

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Jose Ignacio Priego-Quesada, Alejandro Pérez-Guarner, Alexis Gandia-Soriano, Fran Oficial-Casado, Carlos Galindo, Rosa M. Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, José David Piñeiro-Ramos, Ángel Sánchez-Illana, Julia Kuligowski, Marco A. Gomes Barbosa, Máximo Vento and Rosario Salvador Palmer

Monitoring internal and external load is important for athletes, sport, and medical staff in order to improve training schedules and athletes’ adaptation and performance and to reduce the risk of injury and nonfunctional overreaching. 1 , 2 Although cardiovascular, biochemical, and psychological

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Mònica Solana-Tramunt, Jose Morales, Bernat Buscà, Marina Carbonell and Lara Rodríguez-Zamora

program and minimizing their risk of nonfunctional overreaching, injury, and illness. 4 In the last decade, studies have attempted to address the physiological responses of SS athletes during different types of training. 5 , 6 The variables that have been most frequently investigated include blood