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Giovani Dos Santos Cunha, Marco Aurélio Vaz, Jeam Marcel Geremia, Gabriela T. Leites, Rafael Reimann Baptista, André Luiz Lopes and Álvaro Reischak-Oliveira

The present study investigated the effects of pubertal status on peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), respiratory compensation point (RCP), and ventilatory threshold (VT) in young soccer players using different body size descriptors. Seventy-nine soccer players (14 prepubescent, 38 pubescent and 27 postpubescent) participated in this study. A maximal exercise test was performed to determine the VO2peak, RCP, and VT. Ultrasonography was used to measure lower limb muscle volume (LLMV). LLMV (mL-b) was rated as the most effective body size descriptor to normalize VO2peak (mLO2•mL-0.43•min-1), RCP (mLO2•mL-0.48•min-1), and VT (mLO2•mL-0.40•min-1). The values of VO2peak, RCP, and VT relative to allometric exponents derived by LLMV were similar among groups (p > .05; 0.025 < η2 < 0.059) when the effect of chronological age was controlled. Allometric VO2peak, RCP, and VT values were: 100.1 ± 7.9, 107.5 ± 9.6, and 108.0 ± 10.3 mLO2.mL-0.43•min-1; 51.8 ± 5.3, 54.8 ± 4.7, and 57.3 ± 5.8 mLO2•mL-0.48•min-1; and 75.7 ± 7.1, 79.4 ± 7.0, and 80.9 ± 8.3 mLO2•mL-0.40•min-1 for prepubertal, pubertal, and postpubertal groups, respectively. Maturity status showed no positive effect on VO2peak, RCP, and VT when the data were properly normalized by LLMV in young soccer players. Allometric normalization using muscle volume as a body size descriptor should be used to compare aerobic fitness between soccer players heterogeneous in chronological age, maturity status, and body size.

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Giovani dos Santos Cunha and Gabriela Tomedi Leites

correlations ranged from r  = .58 to r  = .84 in children and adolescents of both sexes. In addition, even after normalizing by total body mass, VO 2 peak (mL·kg −1 ·min −1 ) remained negatively and significantly correlated with body mass. For this reason, the standard ratio was considered inadequate for

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Shelly A. McGrath and Ruth A. Chananie-Hill

Based on participant observation and in-depth interviews with 10 college-level female bodybuilders, this paper focuses on several aspects of female bodybuilding that are underexplored in existing literature, including purposeful gender transgressions, gender attribution, racialized bodies, and the conflation of sex, gender, and sexual preference. We draw on critical feminist theory and the social constructionist perspective to enhance collective understanding of the subversive possibilities emerging from female bodybuilders’ lived experience. Collectively, female bodybuilders’ experiences affect somatic and behavioral gender norms in a wider Western-type industrialized society such as the United States.

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Erik A. Wikstrom, Kyeongtak Song, Kimmery Migel and Chris J. Hass

Key Points ▸ Aberrant loading is a mechanism which negatively impacts cartilage health. ▸ Individuals with CAI demonstrate higher normalized loading rate and less time to peak vGRF compared to controls. ▸ Altered loading rates in CAI may lead to an increased risk of early cartilage degeneration

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Katya Trousset, David Phillips and Andrew Karduna

calculated with the force measured at the load cell. CE and RMS error are also calculated with the error normalized to the target load. Four trials were collected for each target load (120%, 140%, and 160% of baseline torque) at each humeral elevation angle (50°, 70°, and 90°). Statistical Analysis

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Aaron T. Scanlan, Neal Wen, Joshua H. Guy, Nathan Elsworthy, Michele Lastella, David B. Pyne, Daniele Conte and Vincent J. Dalbo

measures derived from the IMTP with sprinting and jumping tests commonly used in adolescent basketball. There is a paucity of research examining the IMTP in adolescent basketball players. 5 To date, only correlations between dominant:nondominant ratios in normalized peak force production using unilateral

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Adam Culiver, J. Craig Garrison, Kalyssa M. Creed, John E. Conway, Shiho Goto and Sherry Werner

further (a greater percentage of normalized body height) aids energy transfer to the upper-extremity (UE). 15 For example, pitchers who overstride are better at using the entire kinetic chain with each throw 15 As such, striding further toward home plate increases forward trunk velocity and may reduce

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Daniel C. McFarland, Alexander G. Brynildsen and Katherine R. Saul

metrics. To ameliorate this, researchers have proposed methods to incorporate cocontraction into optimization; 2 common approaches are constraining predicted muscle excitations to match magnitudes of normalized surface electromyography (EMG) signals within a tolerance 8 or constraining optimization to

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Andrzej Kochanowicz, Bartłomiej Niespodziński, Jan Mieszkowski, Stanisław Sawczyn, Paweł Cięszczyk and Kazimierz Kochanowicz

(intraclass correlation coefficient > .994) of the bioelectrical impedance analysis method among children ( 23 ). The results of FFM were used to normalize the peak torque (PKTQ) of the elbow joint. Table 1 The Characteristics of Physical Development of Participants and Changes After 10 Months of EST Before