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Daniel G. Renfrow, Terrence L. Wissick and Christopher M. Guard

Drawing on 251 incident reports, this study explores American football fans’ decisions to rush the field to celebrate a victory despite pleas from university officials and the police to abstain. We explore the symbolic interactions through which students defined this situation and acted within it. Our findings characterize this event as series of ongoing interactions wherein meaning and action are continually (re)negotiated. Campus rumors normalized the act of rushing by locating it and the student role within local tradition. Through interactions with other students in the stadium and by drawing on knowledge of prior sports tragedies, fans assessed the risks of participating and selected among lines of action ranging from “going to be with others” and “getting out of the way” to “going with the flow.” Ultimately, however, public address announcements, the loss of bodily control, and the inability to direct other people’s actions aligned competing definitions of the situation into one of emergency. We conclude by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

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Emily A. Roper

Fear of violent crime and concern for personal safety are well documented fears among women (Bialeschki & Hicks, 1998; Wesley & Gaarder, 2004). Feminist theorists argue that concern for personal safety among women is one of the most significant ways in which women’s lives and their use of space is controlled and restricted (Bialeschki, 1999; Cops & Pleysier, 2011). Employing a feminist standpoint framework (Hill Collins, 2000), the purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine recreational female runners’ concerns for safety while running outdoors in an urban park setting and the strategies employed to negotiate or manage their concerns. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 female recreational runners. Interview data were analyzed following the procedures outlined by Corbin and Strauss (2007) for open and axial coding. The following themes emerged from the interview data: (a) fear of being attacked, (b) environmental and social cues, (c) normalization of street harassment, (d) negotiation strategies, and (e) recommendations for enhancing safety. The findings provide important information pertaining to women’s access to safe outdoor space in which to exercise. Perceptions of safety, fear of being attacked and experiences of harassment have the power to negatively influence women’s engagement and enjoyment in outdoor PA/exercise.

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Pirkko Markula

Following Michel Foucault, feminist sport scholars have demonstrated how women’s physical activity can act as a technology of domination that anchors women into a discoursive web of normalizing practices. There has been less emphasis on Foucault’s later work that focuses on the individual’s role of changing the practices of domination. Foucault argues that human beings turn themselves into subjects through what he labels “the technologies of the self.” While his work is not gender specific, some feminists have seen the technologies of the self as a possibility to reconceptualize the self, agency and resistance in feminist theory and politics. In this paper, I aim to examine what Foucault’s technologies of self can offer feminists in sport studies. I begin by reviewing applications of Foucault’s technology of the self to analyses of women’s physical activity. I will next locate the technologies of the self within Foucault’s theory of power, self and ethics to further reflect how valuable this concept can be for feminist sport studies.

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Theresa A. Walton and Ted M. Butryn

In this article, we examine the complex relationship between whiteness and men’s U.S. distance running. Through a critical examination of over 700 print and electronic sources dealing with distance running in the U.S. from the 1970s through the present, we present evidence that distance running has been framed as a “White space” that is threatened by both external factors (dominance of male international distance-running competition by athletes from African nations) and internal factors (lack of U.S. White male success in conjunction with the success of U.S. citizens of color, born within and outside of the U.S.). We also examine several forms of backlash against these perceived threats, including the media focus on a succession of next White hopes, the rise of U.S. only prize money in road races, and the marginalization of African-born U.S. runners. Our analysis reveals how the media works to normalize whiteness within the larger narrative of U.S. distance running and suggests the need for future work on whiteness and sport.

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Talk: Male Athletes Reflect on Sport, Injury, and Pain Kevin Young * Philip White * William McTeer * 6 1994 11 2 175 194 10.1123/ssj.11.2.175 Research Notes A Little Pain Never Hurt Anybody: A Photo-Essay on the Normalization of Sport Injuries Timothy J. Curry * Richard H. Strauss * 6 1994 11

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26 2 211 234 10.1123/ssj.26.2.211 “Big Freaky-Looking Women”: Normalizing Gender Transgression through Bodybuilding Shelly A. McGrath * Ruth A. Chananie-Hill * 6 2009 26 2 235 254 10.1123/ssj.26.2.235 The Power of “Small Stories:” Narratives and Notions of Gender Equality in Conversations about

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ARTICLES Race and Exercise Engagement: Investigating the High-Calorie-Burning Activities of White and Black Collegiate Women Buffie Longmire-Avital * Takudzwa Madzima * Elyse Bierut * 1 10 2018 26 2 69 75 10.1123/wspaj.2017-0047 wspaj.2017-0047 Inclusion and Normalization of Queer Identities

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Garrett Bunyak

cats, everywhere.” Cat agility is portrayed as a fun, playful, healthy, and beneficial relationship for cats and humans alike. Beneath the veil of multispecies pleasure, however, feline agility performances involve the ongoing construction, legitimization, normalization and negotiation of power

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Catherine Phipps

( Denison & Kitchen, 2015 ) demonstrate a range of issues in the sport context including overt forms of homophobia and transphobia in sport, alongside subtler and normalized practices including heteronormativity and “lad culture.” The term heteronormativity was originally coined by Warner ( 1993 ) and

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Gretchen Kerr, Erin Willson and Ashley Stirling

which abuse occurs and is allowed to perpetuate either through normalization, the over-prioritization of performance outcomes, or the failure of bystanders to intervene ( Breger, Holman, & Guerrero, 2019 ; Nite & Nauright, 2019 ). Recently, several high-profile international cases of athlete abuses