Fear of violent crime and concern for personal safety are well documented fears among women (Bialeschki & Hicks, 1998; Wesley & Gaarder, 2004). Feminist theorists argue that concern for personal safety among women is one of the most significant ways in which women’s lives and their use of space is controlled and restricted (Bialeschki, 1999; Cops & Pleysier, 2011). Employing a feminist standpoint framework (Hill Collins, 2000), the purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine recreational female runners’ concerns for safety while running outdoors in an urban park setting and the strategies employed to negotiate or manage their concerns. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 female recreational runners. Interview data were analyzed following the procedures outlined by Corbin and Strauss (2007) for open and axial coding. The following themes emerged from the interview data: (a) fear of being attacked, (b) environmental and social cues, (c) normalization of street harassment, (d) negotiation strategies, and (e) recommendations for enhancing safety. The findings provide important information pertaining to women’s access to safe outdoor space in which to exercise. Perceptions of safety, fear of being attacked and experiences of harassment have the power to negatively influence women’s engagement and enjoyment in outdoor PA/exercise.
Theresa A. Walton and Ted M. Butryn
In this article, we examine the complex relationship between whiteness and men’s U.S. distance running. Through a critical examination of over 700 print and electronic sources dealing with distance running in the U.S. from the 1970s through the present, we present evidence that distance running has been framed as a “White space” that is threatened by both external factors (dominance of male international distance-running competition by athletes from African nations) and internal factors (lack of U.S. White male success in conjunction with the success of U.S. citizens of color, born within and outside of the U.S.). We also examine several forms of backlash against these perceived threats, including the media focus on a succession of next White hopes, the rise of U.S. only prize money in road races, and the marginalization of African-born U.S. runners. Our analysis reveals how the media works to normalize whiteness within the larger narrative of U.S. distance running and suggests the need for future work on whiteness and sport.
Following Michel Foucault, feminist sport scholars have demonstrated how women’s physical activity can act as a technology of domination that anchors women into a discoursive web of normalizing practices. There has been less emphasis on Foucault’s later work that focuses on the individual’s role of changing the practices of domination. Foucault argues that human beings turn themselves into subjects through what he labels “the technologies of the self.” While his work is not gender specific, some feminists have seen the technologies of the self as a possibility to reconceptualize the self, agency and resistance in feminist theory and politics. In this paper, I aim to examine what Foucault’s technologies of self can offer feminists in sport studies. I begin by reviewing applications of Foucault’s technology of the self to analyses of women’s physical activity. I will next locate the technologies of the self within Foucault’s theory of power, self and ethics to further reflect how valuable this concept can be for feminist sport studies.
Heather Sykes and Deborah McPhail
In this article we examine how fat-phobic discourses in physical education both constitute, and are continually negotiated by, “fat” and “overweight” students. This claim is based on qualitative interviews about memories of physical education with 15 adults in Canada and the U.S. who identified as fat or overweight at some time during their lives. The research draws from feminist poststructuralism, queer theory, and feminist fat theory to examine how students negotiate fat subjectivities in fat-phobic educational contexts. The interviews reveal how fat phobia in physical education is oppressive and makes it extremely difficult for most students to develop positive fat subjectivities in physical education; how weighing and measuring practices work to humiliate and discipline fat bodies; and how fat phobia reinforces normalizing constructions of sex and gender. The interviews also illustrate how some students resisted fat phobia in physical education by avoiding, and sometimes excelling in, particular physical activities. Finally, interviewees talk about the importance of having access to fat-positive fitness spaces as adults and suggest ways to improve the teaching of physical education.
Talk: Male Athletes Reflect on Sport, Injury, and Pain Kevin Young * Philip White * William McTeer * 6 1994 11 2 175 194 10.1123/ssj.11.2.175 Research Notes A Little Pain Never Hurt Anybody: A Photo-Essay on the Normalization of Sport Injuries Timothy J. Curry * Richard H. Strauss * 6 1994 11
ARTICLES Race and Exercise Engagement: Investigating the High-Calorie-Burning Activities of White and Black Collegiate Women Buffie Longmire-Avital * Takudzwa Madzima * Elyse Bierut * 1 10 2018 26 2 69 75 10.1123/wspaj.2017-0047 wspaj.2017-0047 Inclusion and Normalization of Queer Identities
26 2 211 234 10.1123/ssj.26.2.211 “Big Freaky-Looking Women”: Normalizing Gender Transgression through Bodybuilding Shelly A. McGrath * Ruth A. Chananie-Hill * 6 2009 26 2 235 254 10.1123/ssj.26.2.235 The Power of “Small Stories:” Narratives and Notions of Gender Equality in Conversations about
cats, everywhere.” Cat agility is portrayed as a fun, playful, healthy, and beneficial relationship for cats and humans alike. Beneath the veil of multispecies pleasure, however, feline agility performances involve the ongoing construction, legitimization, normalization and negotiation of power
( Denison & Kitchen, 2015 ) demonstrate a range of issues in the sport context including overt forms of homophobia and transphobia in sport, alongside subtler and normalized practices including heteronormativity and “lad culture.” The term heteronormativity was originally coined by Warner ( 1993 ) and
Gretchen Kerr, Erin Willson and Ashley Stirling
which abuse occurs and is allowed to perpetuate either through normalization, the over-prioritization of performance outcomes, or the failure of bystanders to intervene ( Breger, Holman, & Guerrero, 2019 ; Nite & Nauright, 2019 ). Recently, several high-profile international cases of athlete abuses