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Emily Stadder and Michael L. Naraine

avenues are closely connected with sport, as marketers seek the association with sport to increase the normalization and legitimacy of gambling ( Gainsbury et al., 2016 ). Through television, there are multiple options for gambling operators to promote their products. Of course, there is the use of

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Emma Kavanagh, Chelsea Litchfield and Jaquelyn Osborne

adopted in order to normalize and/or trivialize gender-based discrimination ( Lockyer & Savigny, 2019 ). Often the violence targeting the women athletes online was subtle and hidden through humor, therefore reducing its likelihood to be recognized as violent content. As a result, these interactions often

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Spencer Riehl, Ryan Snelgrove and Jonathon Edwards

prominent athletes with reference to attributes that are to be normalized. For example, the tradition of Michigan University athletics continues in part through the “Michigan Man” concept, which emphasizes a particular way of acting and competing ( Bacon, 2015 ). The last mechanism that maintains

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Liam J.A. Lenten, Aaron C.T. Smith and Ralph-Christopher Bayer

athletes do not make decisions about doping based on ethics ( Engelberg, Moston, & Skinner, 2015 ). In fact, doping was normalized, leading to decisions made in a context of “moral disengagement.” In the absence of an idealized testing regime where drug use can be detected and eliminated, three options

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Landy Di Lu and Kathryn L. Heinze

. We gathered the public support data from the IRS Form 990 (Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax), filed by each state-level BIA, using a Guidestar ( http://www.guidestar.org/Home.aspx ). To standardize the differences in state income, we further normalized this data by state per capita

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Chen Chen and Daniel S. Mason

claims to the land have been denied through narratives of progress and/or racial cultural superiority ( Smith, 2012 ; Trask, 1999 ). This brings up the last pillar of settler colonialism: Through the elimination of Indigenous peoples, settlers attempt to normalize their presence on the land ( Wolfe

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Matthew Katz, Bob Heere and E. Nicole Melton

ties are spread across a predetermined variable. The IQV is a normalized summary measure of dispersion that ranges from perfectly homogenous to perfectly heterogeneous ( Halgin & Borgatti, 2012 ). Higher scores indicate greater heterogeneity among alters based on the classification of interest. To

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Brian P. McCullough, Madeleine Orr and Timothy Kellison

sport managers that instituting environmental initiatives would be economically viable or is morally imperative, legislative intervention would provide a clear path to normalizing sustainability in sport” ( Kellison & McCullough, 2018 , p. 453). One such form of legislation, state environmental policy

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Khirey B. Walker, Chad S. Seifried and Brian P. Soebbing

responsibility, governing financial aids to athletes, recruiting, and implementation ( Edleman, 2014 ). The Sanity Code was normalized between 1948 and 1950, but several schools (e.g., Boston College, Citadel, Maryland, Villanova, Virginia, Virginia Tech, and Virginia Military Institute) were found in violation

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Allyson C. Hartzell and Marlene A. Dixon

femininity from leadership roles further normalized the exclusion of women from the highest levels of management. In their case studies, they found that men were more likely to hold positions with greater power and influence, such as senior management and coaching. In contrast, women were more likely to hold