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S. Nicole Fearnbach, Neil M. Johannsen, Corby K. Martin, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Robbie A. Beyl, Daniel S. Hsia, Owen T. Carmichael and Amanda E. Staiano

for cardiometabolic disease, such as whole-body adiposity ( 6 , 20 ). However, individuals with severe obesity are underrepresented in clinical exercise studies, often due to orthopedic or other safety concerns (eg, increased shortness of breath), hesitation to push participants to maximal effort, or

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Matthew R. Nagy, Molly P. O’Sullivan, Shannon S. Block, Trevor R. Tooley, Leah E. Robinson, Natalie Colabianchi and Rebecca E. Hasson

Despite the known benefits of physical activity, less than 50% of children in the United States meet the national physical activity recommendations of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. 1 Overweight/obese (OW/OB) children fare even worse with only 20%–40% meeting the

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Dori E. Rosenberg, Melissa L. Anderson, Anne Renz, Theresa E. Matson, Amy K. Lee, Mikael Anne Greenwood-Hickman, David E. Arterburn, Paul A. Gardiner, Jacqueline Kerr and Jennifer B. McClure

Currently, about 40% of U.S. adults aged 65–74 years have obesity ( Fakhouri, Ogden, Carroll, Kit, & Flegal, 2012 ). This number is likely to rise as the U.S. population of adults over the age of 60 grows to become 25% of the population ( Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics, 2012

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Gregory Severino, Marcos Sanchez-Gonzalez, Michelle Walters-Edwards, Michael Nordvall, Oksana Chernykh, Jason Adames and Alexei Wong

Menopause and obesity are pivotal cardiovascular risk factors owing to their relative contributions to increased sympathetic tone, endothelial dysfunction, and increased blood pressure ( Rosano, Vitale, Marazzi, & Volterrani, 2007 ). A higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (78.8%) has been

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Mynor Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jeffrey S. Martin, David D. Pascoe, Michael D. Roberts and Danielle W. Wadsworth

duration conditions on postprandial glucose (PPG) content in an at-risk population of sedentary normoglycemic obese women. We chose to evaluate obese, sedentary women given that women meet physical activity guidelines less than males, 4 and because obesity is also linked to SED, 9 affects nearly 4 in 10

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Gislaine S. Kogure, Cristiana L. Miranda-Furtado, Daiana C.C. Pedroso, Victor B. Ribeiro, Matheus C. Eiras, Rafael C. Silva, Lisandra C. Caetano, Rui A. Ferriani, Rodrigo T. Calado and Rosana M. dos Reis

Obesity and excess visceral fat are risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, 1 including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). 2 PCOS is an endocrinopathy that affects 7% to 14% of women of reproductive age 3 and is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, 4 associated with

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Pasmore Malambo, Andre P. Kengne, Estelle V. Lambert, Anniza De Villiers and Thandi Puoane

Overweight and obesity are a worldwide health problem, affecting populations across a diversity of social and income statuses. In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that more than 1.9 billion adults were overweight and 600 million were obese. 1 Theoretically, walking could help

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Alexei Wong and Arturo Figueroa

of sympathetic and parasympathetic (vagal) nervous activity of the heart ( Task Force, 1996 ). Menopause and obesity increase the risk for cardiovascular events ( Hubert, Feinleib, McNamara, & Castelli, 1983 ; Rosano, Vitale, Marazzi, & Volterrani, 2007 ), which may be, in part, due to impairments

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J. Dru Marshall and Marcel Bouffard

The primary purpose of this study was to document the actual gross movement competencies, as measured by the Test of Gross Motor Development, in obese versus nonobese children. A 2 Gender (male, female) × 2 Groups (obese, nonobese) × 2 Age Categories (Grade 1, Grade 4) × 2 Programs (quality daily physical education [QDPE], non-QDPE) completely randomized factorial design was used. A significant three-way interaction effect (Group × Age × Program) was found for the Locomotor Skills subscale, such that the difference in movement competency in locomotor skills between obese and nonobese children increased as children got older if they did not receive QPDE. A significant main program effect was also found for the Object Control Skills subscale, with the QDPE children scoring higher than the non-QDPE children. It appears, then, that QDPE programs offer a “protective” effect for the development of locomotor skills in obese children. Implications of these findings are discussed.

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Oded Bar-Or and Tom Baranowski

This review examines the evidence that the level of physical activity (PA) or total energy expenditure during adolescence affects body adiposity in the obese and nonobese adolescent population. Several cross-sectional studies suggested that obese children were less physically active than their nonobese peers, but there was no consistent difference in the total energy expenditure. The likelihood that infants of obese mothers become obese at age 1 year is greater if their total energy expenditure (using the doubly labeled water technique) is lower at age 3 months. Many interventional studies in the general adolescent population show a small (1-3% body fat) reduction in adiposity as a result of physical training. It appears, though, that programs longer than one year are more efficacious than shorter programs. Lifestyle activities (e.g., walking to and from school) appear to have a more lasting effect than regimented activities (e.g., calisthenics or jogging).