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Rebecca A. Abbott, Doune Macdonald, Smita Nambiar and Peter S.W. Davies

Objective measurement of daily steps was used to assess whether children (n = 2,076) in Years 1, 5 and 10 who reported walking to or from school were more active and more likely to reach recommended step targets than those who were driven or took public transport to school. Walking to school was associated with higher school-day steps in older children (16,238 vs 15,275 for Year 5 male p < .05, 13,521 vs 12,502 for Year 5 female p < .01, 12,109 vs 11,373 for Year 10 female p < .05). The proportion of children who met recommended step thresholds was higher in those who walked to school compared with those who took motorized transport, and this was significant for Year 5 females (71.7% vs 54.5%, p < .01). This study suggests that walking to school for older children has potential to contribute significantly to daily activity levels and increases the likelihood of attaining recommended step targets. These data should encourage public policy and those concerned with the built environment to provide and support opportunities for walking to school.

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Juliet A. Harvey, Sebastien F.M. Chastin and Dawn A. Skelton

Background/objectives:

Sedentary behavior (SB), defined as sitting (nonexercising), reclining, and lying down (posture), or by low energy expenditure, is a public health risk independent to physical activity. The objective of this systematic literature review was to synthesize the available evidence on amount of SB reported by and measured in older adults.

Data source:

Studies published between 1981 and 2014 were identified from electronic databases and manual searching. Large-scale population studies/surveys reporting the amount of SB (objective/subjective) in older adults aged ≥ 60 years of age were included. Appraisal and synthesis was completed using MOOSE guidelines.

Results:

349,698 adults aged ≥ 60 within 22 studies (10 countries and 1 EU-wide) were included. Objective measurement of SB shows that older adults spend an average of 9.4 hr a day sedentary, equating to 65–80% of their waking day. Self-report of SB is lower, with average weighted self-reports being 5.3 hr daily. Within specific domains of SB, older adults report 3.3 hr in leisure sitting time and 3.3 hr watching TV. There is an association with more time spent in SB as age advances and a trend for older men to spend more time in SB than women.

Conclusion/implications:

Time spent sedentary ranges from 5.3–9.4 hr per waking day in older adults. With recent studies suggesting a link between SB, health, and well-being, independent of physical activity, this is an area important for successful aging.

Limitations:

Different methodologies of measurement and different reporting methods of SB made synthesis difficult. Estimated SB time from self-report is half of that measured objectively; suggesting that most self-report surveys of SB will vastly underestimate the actual time spent in SB.

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Catherine Mason and Matt Greig

Context: Lower back pain is prevalent in horse riders as a result of the absorption of repetitive and multiplanar propulsive forces from the horse. Global positioning system technology provides potential for in vivo measurement of planar loading during riding. Objective: To quantify the uniaxial loading at the lumbar and cervicothoracic spine during dressage elements. Design: Repeated measures, randomized order. Setting: Equestrian arena. Patients (or Other Participants): Twenty-one female dressage riders. Intervention(s): Each rider completed walk, rising trot, sitting trot, and canter trials in a randomized order. A global positioning system unit was placed within customized garments at C7 and L5, collecting triaxial accelerometry data at 100 Hz. Outcome Measures: PlayerLoad based on the rate of change of acceleration and calculated in the anteroposterior (AP), mediolateral, and vertical planes during each trial. Results: There was no significant main effect for global positioning system location in the AP (P = .76), mediolateral (P = .88), or vertical (P = .76) planes. There was a significant main effect for pace in all trials (P < .001), with successive elements eliciting significantly greater loading (P ≤ .03) in all planes in the order walk < rising trot < canter < sitting trot. There was a significant placement × element interaction only in the AP plane (P = .03) with AP loading greater at L5 during walk, rising trot, and canter trials, but greater at C7 during sitting trot. Conclusions: The significant main effect for dressage element was indicative of greater pace of the horse, with faster pace activities eliciting greater loading in all planes. In vivo measurement of spinal accelerometry has application in the objective measurement and subsequent management of lumbar load for riders.

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Harsimran S. Baweja and Daniel J. Goble

concussion balance testing is the objective measurement of body sway control via a force plate device. A more sophisticated approach to concussion balance testing is the objective measurement of body sway control via a force plate device. Force plate technology is generally considered the “gold standard” for

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Emmanuel Frimpong, Joanne A. McVeigh and Rebecca M. Meiring

/mobile-bearing implant (INNEX CR; Zimmer Biomet, Warsaw, IN) and NaviTrack (ORTHOsoft, Zimmer Biomet, Montreal, Canada) • Postoperative rehabilitation (first 2 months after surgery) Objective measurement: • DynaPort Activity Monitor (McRoberts, The Hague, The Netherlands) • Valid days worn: 1 day • Mean wear time: 12

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Katariina Kämppi, Annaleena Aira, Nina Halme, Pauliina Husu, Virpi Inkinen, Laura Joensuu, Sami Kokko, Kaarlo Laine, Kaisu Mononen, Sanna Palomäki, Timo Ståhl, Arja Sääkslahti and Tuija Tammelin

Indicator Grade Rationale Overall Physical Activity (PA) D The proportion of children and adolescent who meet the minimum recommendation of engaging in at least 60 minutes of PA a day. 34% of 9-15 y (LIITU objective measurements, 2016), 31% of 9-15 y (LIITU survey 2016). 1 45% of 10-11 y and 19% of 14-15 y

Open access

Narayan Subedi, Susan Paudel, Sudip Nepal, Ashmita Karki, Mahendra Magar and Suresh Mehata

incorporating a wide range of variables with objective measurement, in this age group, to guide policy and interventions. Likewise, concern and support of stakeholders to promote PA among children and youth is warranted. References 1. Siegel KR , Patel SA , Ali MK . Non-communicable diseases in South

Open access

Izzeldin Ibrahim, Eiman Al Hammadi, Suzan Sayegh, Lena Zimmo, Jwaher Al Neama, Husam Rezeq, Abdulla Saeed Al-Mohannadi and Al Anoud Al-Thani

39% of children engaged in 30 minutes or more school-based MVPA per day 9 (based on objective measurements). 2. Organized Sport Participation D+ 48% of youth participated in organized sport and/or physical activity (PA) programs. 58% boys and 42% girls are registered to sport clubs. 8 3. Active Play

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Alex V. Rowlands

increasing the potential of this valuable resource by including longitudinal data and access to a wider range of nonaccelerometer data. Raw Acceleration Accelerometry-Based Activity Monitors In 2009, an Objective Measurement of Physical Activity Expert Consensus Meeting was held, cosponsored by the American

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Daniele Coraci, Silvia Giovannini, Giulia Piccinini, Claudia Loreti, Valter Santilli and Luca Padua

important topic of the article by Contemori and colleagues is the diagnostic and evaluation approach of the disease. The authors completed clinical evaluation with objective measurements. The diagnostic instruments are useful to amplify physicians’ evaluation capability and quantify minimal parameter