resulting in functional overreaching is required for performance enhancement and can be compensated through comprehensive recovery. Functional overreaching describes a short-term decrement of performance without signs of maladaptation as a consequence of intensive training. In case systematic and
Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron J. Coutts, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Shona L. Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Romain Meeusen, Iñigo Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter and Jürgen Beckmann
Caleb D. Bazyler, Satoshi Mizuguchi, Ashley A. Kavanaugh, John J. McMahon, Paul Comfort and Michael H. Stone
conditioning program. Although empirical evidence is lacking, differences in adaptive responses may be observed among players on a team during specific training phases (eg, overreaching and tapering). One of the most important training phases during the competitive season is the peaking phase. The peaking
Sabrina Skorski, Iñigo Mujika, Laurent Bosquet, Romain Meeusen, Aaron J. Coutts and Tim Meyer
(intended) insufficient recovery and/or periods of (functional) “overload” or “overreaching.” 2 These alterations in the training stimulus highlight the need to adapt recovery time frames and interventions according to the specific period, the demands of training, and the specific needs of the athlete
Maria Francesca Piacentini, Oliver C. Witard, Cajsa Tonoli, Sarah R. Jackman, James E. Turner, Arie K. Kies, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Kevin D. Tipton and Romain Meeusen
Monitoring mood state is a useful tool for avoiding nonfunctional overreaching. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in stress-related mood disorders.
To investigate the impact of intensified training-induced mood disturbance on plasma BDNF concentrations at rest and in response to exercise.
Eight cyclists performed 1 wk of normal (NT), 1 wk of intensified (INT), and 1 wk of recovery (REC) training. Fasted blood samples were collected before and after exercise on day 7 of each training week and analyzed for plasma BDNF and cortisol concentrations. A 24-item Profile of Mood State questionnaire was administered on day 7 of each training week, and global mood score (GMS) was calculated.
Time-trial performance was impaired during INT (P = .01) and REC (P = .02) compared with NT. Basal plasma cortisol (NT = 153 ± 16 ng/mL, INT = 130 ± 11 ng/mL, REC = 150 ± 14 ng/ml) and BDNF (NT = 484 ± 122 pg/mL, INT = 488 ± 122 pg/mL, REC = 383 ± 56 pg/mL) concentrations were similar between training conditions. Likewise, similar exercise-induced increases in cortisol and BDNF concentrations were observed between training conditions. GMS was 32% greater during INT vs NT (P < .001).
Consistent with a state of functional overreaching (FOR), impairments in performance and mood state with INT were restored after 1 wk of REC. These results support evidence for mood changes before plasma BDNF concentrations as a biochemical marker of FOR and that cortisol is not a useful marker for predicting FOR.
Ed Maunder, Andrew E. Kilding, Christopher J. Stevens and Daniel J. Plews
A common practice amongst endurance athletes is to purposefully train in hot environments during a ‘heat stress camp’. However, combined exercise-heat stress poses threats to athlete wellbeing, and therefore heat stress training has the potential to induce maladaptation. This case study describes the monitoring strategies used in a successful three-week heat stress camp undertaken by two elite Ironman triathletes, namely resting heart rate variability, self-report wellbeing, and careful prescription of training based on previously collected physiological data. Despite the added heat stress, training volume very likely increased in both athletes, and training load very likely increased in one of the athletes, whilst resting HRV and self-report wellbeing were maintained. There was also some evidence of favourable metabolic changes during routine laboratory testing following the camp. We therefore recommend that practitioners working with endurance athletes embarking on a heat stress training camp consider using the simple strategies employed in the present case study to reduce the risk of maladaptation and non-functional overreaching.
Daniel J. Plews, Paul B. Laursen, Yann Le Meur, Christophe Hausswirth, Andrew E. Kilding and Martin Buchheit
To establish the minimum number of days that heart-rate-variability (HRV, ie, the natural logarithm of square root of the mean sum of the squared differences between R-R intervals, Ln rMSSD) data should be averaged to achieve correspondingly equivalent results as data averaged over a 1-wk period.
Standardized changes in Ln rMSSD between different phases of training (normal training, functional overreaching (FOR), overall training, and taper) and the correlation coefficients of percentage changes in performance vs changes in Ln rMSSD were compared when averaging Ln rMSSD from 1 to 7 d, randomly selected within the week.
Standardized Ln rMSSD changes (90% confidence limits, CL) from baseline to overload (FOR) were 0.20 ± 0.28, 0.33 ± 0.26, 0.49 ± 0.33, 0.48 ± 0.28, 0.47 ± 0.26, 0.45 ± 0.26, and 0.43 ± 0.29 on days 1 to 7, respectively. Correlations (90% CL) over the same time sequence and training phase were –.02 ± .23, –.07 ± .23, –.17 ± .22, –.25 ± .22, –.26 ± .22, –.28 ± .21, and –.25 ± .22 on days 1 to 7. There were almost perfect quadratic relationships between standardized changes/r values vs the number of days Ln rMSSD was averaged (r 2 = .92 and .97, respectively) in trained triathletes during FOR. This indicates a plateau in the increase in standardized changes/r values’ magnitude after 3 and 4 d, respectively, in trained triathletes.
Practitioners using HRV to monitor training adaptation should use a minimum of 3 (randomly selected) valid data points per week.
Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, José G. Villa, Raúl Pernía and Carl Foster
average decrement of ∼10% between the absolute values. Reduced ergometric performance has been used as a primary criterion to identify overreaching. 16 Although muscle glycogen can be considered a plausible cause of the depressed performance, and is supported by the significant reduction in peak exercise
Bart Roelands and Kevin De Pauw
on nutritional manipulations that aim to get athletes at the start of a race in the best possible shape 1 ; training strategies and training-load-monitoring tools to avoid having athletes crossing the thin line between training and recovery, making them vulnerable to nonfunctional overreaching and
Andrea Fusco, Christine Knutson, Charles King, Richard P. Mikat, John P. Porcari, Cristina Cortis and Carl Foster
Careful monitoring is required for adjusting the intensity, duration, and frequency of training in order to maximize performance improvement, while minimizing side effects, such as nonfunctional overreaching, injury, and illness. 1 , 2 There are many objective methods for measuring internal
Hayden J. Pritchard, Matthew J. Barnes, Robin J. Stewart, Justin W. Keogh and Michael R. McGuigan
testosterone and cortisol following training are not frequently observed. 28 Given that the training volume within the present study was not excessive, it was unlikely that changes associated with overreaching would occur. 6 , 29 However, further investigations could attempt to induce overreaching prior to a