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Craig A. Bridge, Michelle A. Jones and Barry Drust

Purpose:

To investigate the physiological responses and perceived exertion during international Taekwondo competition.

Methods:

Eight male Taekwondo black belts (mean ± SD, age 22 ± 4 y, body mass 69.4 ± 13.4 kg, height 1.82 ± 0.10 m, competition experience 9 ± 5 y) took part in an international-level Taekwondo competition. Each combat included three 2-min rounds with 30 s of recovery between each round. Heart rate (HR) was recorded at 5-s intervals during each combat. Capillary blood lactate samples were taken from the fingertip 1 min before competition, directly after each round and 1 min after competition. Competitors’ rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded for each round using Borg’s 6-to-20 scale.

Results:

HR (round 1: 175 ± 15 to round 3: 187 ± 8 beats·min−1; P < .05), percentage of HR maximum (round 1: 89 ± 8 to round 3: 96 ± 5% HRmax; P < .05), blood lactate (round 1: 7.5 ± 1.6 to round 3: 11.9 ± 2.1 mmol·L-1; P < .05) and RPE (round 1: 11 ± 2 to round 3: 14 ± 2; P < .05; mean ± SD) increased significantly across rounds.

Conclusions:

International-level Taekwondo competition elicited near-maximal cardiovascular responses, high blood lactate concentrations, and increases in competitors' RPE across combat. Training should therefore include exercise bouts that sufficiently stimulate both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.

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Sharna A. Naidu, Maurizio Fanchini, Adam Cox, Joshua Smeaton, Will G. Hopkins and Fabio R. Serpiello

Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) have been proposed as a simple, noninvasive method to assess exercise intensity. 1 When multiplied by exercise duration, RPE can be used to assess internal training load (TL), this being named session-RPE (sRPE). 2 Traditionally, sRPE has been obtained by using

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Mark D. Winborn, Andrew W. Meyers and Carol Mulling

This study investigated the influence of gender and athletic experience on individuals' ratings of their perceived exertion (RPE). Twelve males with high athletic experience, 12 with low athletic experience, 12 females with high athletic experience, and 12 with low athletic experience were recruited from university classes and athletic teams. An estimate of each individual's maximum oxygen uptake (est VO2max) was obtained from a submaximal bicycle ergometer test. Subjects were then presented with ergometer workloads at 30, 50, and 70% of their estimated VO2max. Heart rate readings and RPEs were obtained during each workload presentation. Low athletic experience females were the least accurate in their RPEs, followed by low athletic experience males. High athletic experience males were the most accurate in their RPEs, followed by high athletic experience females. Results indicated that differences in RPE accuracy scores may be influenced by gender but that exposure to athletic experiences appears to override any potential gender differences.

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Joshua Christen, Carl Foster, John P. Porcari and Richard P. Mikat

Purpose:

The session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) has gained popularity as a “user friendly” method for evaluating internal training load. sRPE has historically been obtained 30 min after exercise. This study evaluated the effect of postexercise measurement time on sRPE after steady-state and interval cycle exercise.

Methods:

Well-trained subjects (N = 15) (maximal oxygen consumption = 51 ± 4 and 36 ± 4 mL/kg [cycle ergometer] for men and women, respectively) completed counterbalanced 30-minute steady-state and interval training bouts. The steady-state ride was at 90% of ventilatory threshold. The work-to-rest ratio of the interval rides was 1:1, and the interval segment durations were 1, 2, and 3 min. The high-intensity component of each interval bout was 75% peak power output, which was accepted as a surrogate of the respiratory compensation threshold, critical power, or maximal lactate steady state. Heart rate, blood lactate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. The sRPE (category ratio scale) was measured at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 60 min and 24 h after each ride using a visual analog scale (VAS) to prevent bias associated with specific RPE verbal anchors.

Results:

sRPE at 30 min postexercise followed a similar trend: steady state = 3.7, 1 min = 3.9, 2 min = 4.7, 3 min = 6.2. No significant differences (P > .05) in sRPE were found based on postexercise sampling times, from 5 min to 24 h postexercise.

Conclusions:

Postexercise time does not appear to have a significant effect on sRPE after either steady-state or interval exercise. Thus, sRPE appears to be temporally robust and is not necessarily limited to the 30-min-postexercise window historically used with this technique, although the presence or absence of a cooldown period after the exercise bout may be important.

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Durva Vahia, Adam Kelly, Harry Knapman and Craig A. Williams

ITL is the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), which was first proposed for team sports by Foster et al ( 13 ). This method measures the psychological response of the player to training load ( 23 , 24 ), measured on a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 represents rest and 10 represents maximal

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Anthony D. Mahon, Kira Q. Stolen and Julie A. Gay

This study examined overall, leg, and chest ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in 16 children (10.7 ± 0.8 yr) and 16 adults (24.2 ± 1.8 yr) during 16 min of exercise performed at an intensity equal to ventilatory threshold (~64% of V̇O2max for the children and 61% of V̇O2max for the adults). Physiological and perceptual responses were measured at 8 and 16 min. RPE in the children ranged from 11.6 ± 2.3 (chest) to 12.6 ± 2.6 (leg) at 8 min, and from 13.3 ± 2.8 (chest) to 15.1 ± 2.9 (leg) at 16 min. In adults, RPE ranged from 10.9 ± 1.9 (chest) to 12.0 ± 1.8 (leg) at 8 min, and from 11.8 ± 2.1 (chest) to 13.3 ± 1.6 (leg) at 16 min. Between groups, RPE tended to be higher and increased more over time in the children compared to the adults (P < .08). RPE at 8 min was less than RPE at 16 min, and overall and leg RPE were greater than chest RPE. Children were able to discriminate sensory information arising from different physiological variables; however, the specific physiological cues underlying the perception of effort remains uncertain in this age group.

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Corrado Lupo, Alexandru Nicolae Ungureanu, Riccardo Frati, Matteo Panichi, Simone Grillo and Paolo Riccardo Brustio

satisfactory awareness. Recent studies investigated the validity of session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE method in basketball). Among these studies, Moreira et al 6 , 7 validated the session-RPE in youth and adult basketball by considering the hormonal responses as measurements of reference

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Manoel E. Lixandrão, Hamilton Roschel, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Maira Miquelini, Ieda F. Alvarez and Cleiton Augusto Libardi

and effective way to assess RE-induced stress is through rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scales. 8 , 9 RPE scales have been shown to be sensitive to manipulations in RE variables. For instance, HI-RE is associated with higher RPE levels compared with LI-RE when an exercise set is not performed to

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Roger Eston

The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a recognized marker of intensity and of homeostatic disturbance during exercise. It is typically monitored during exercise tests to complement other measures of intensity. The purpose of this commentary is to highlight the remarkable value of RPE as a psychophysiological integrator in adults. It can be used in such diverse fashions as to predict exercise capacity, assess changes in training status, and explain changes in pace and pacing strategy. In addition to using RPE to self-regulate exercise, a novel application of the intensity:RPE relationship is to clamp RPE at various levels to produce self-paced bouts of exercise, which can be used to assess maximal functional capacity. Research also shows that the rate of increase in RPE during self-paced competitive events of varying distance, or constant-load tasks where the participant exercises until volitional exhaustion, is proportional to the duration that remains. These findings suggest that the brain regulates RPE and performance in an anticipatory manner based on awareness of metabolic reserves at the start of an event and certainty of the anticipated end point. Changes in pace may be explained by a continuous internal negotiation of momentary RPE compared with a preplanned “ideal rate of RPE progression” template, which takes into account the portion of distance covered and the anticipated end point. These observations have led to the development of new techniques to analyze the complex relationship of RPE and pacing. The use of techniques to assess frontal-cortex activity will lead to further advances in understanding.

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Stephen H. Boutcher and Michele Trenske

This study examined the effects of sensory deprivation and music on perceived exertion and affect. Volunteer women (N=24) performed three 18-min sessions on a cycle ergometer at light, moderate, and heavy workloads during which perceived exertion, affect, and heart rate were monitored. Each subject participated in a control, deprivation, and music condition. No significant differences where found in heart rate between conditions. In contrast, significantly lower perceived exertion existed during the music compared to the deprived condition at the low workload. Similarly, there was lower perceived exertion during the music compared to the control condition at the moderate workload. Also, significantly greater levels of affect were observed during the music compared to the deprived condition at the moderate and heavy workloads. It was concluded that the influence of music and deprivation on perceived exertion and affect was load dependent. These results are discussed with regard to informational processing models of sensory and psychological input.