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Raffy Dotan

The multisession maximal lactate steady-state (MLSS) test is the gold standard for anaerobic threshold (AnT) estimation. However, it is highly impractical, requires high fitness level, and suffers additional shortcomings. Existing single-session AnT-estimating tests are of compromised validity, reliability, and resolution. The presented reverse lactate threshold test (RLT) is a single-session, AnT-estimating test, aimed at avoiding the pitfalls of existing tests. It is based on the novel concept of identifying blood lactate’s maximal appearance-disappearance equilibrium by approaching the AnT from higher, rather than from lower exercise intensities. Rowing, cycling, and running case data (4 recreational and competitive athletes, male and female, aged 17–39 y) are presented. Subjects performed the RLT test and, on a separate session, a single 30-min MLSS-type verification test at the RLT-determined intensity. The RLT and its MLSS verification exhibited exceptional agreement at 0.5% discrepancy or better. The RLT’s training sensitivity was demonstrated by a case of 2.5-mo training regimen following which the RLT’s 15-W improvement was fully MLSS-verified. The RLT’s test-retest reliability was examined in 10 trained and untrained subjects. Test 2 differed from test 1 by only 0.3% with an intraclass correlation of 0.997. The data suggest RLT to accurately and reliably estimate AnT (as represented by MLSS verification) with high resolution and in distinctly different sports and to be sensitive to training adaptations. Compared with MLSS, the single-session RLT is highly practical and its lower fitness requirements make it applicable to athletes and untrained individuals alike. Further research is needed to establish RLT’s validity and accuracy in larger samples.

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William J. Markwick, Stephen P. Bird, James J. Tufano, Laurent B. Seitz and G. Gregory Haff

Purpose:

To evaluate the reliability of the Reactive Strength Index (RSI) and jump-height (JH) performance from multiple drop heights in an elite population.

Methods:

Thirteen professional basketball players (mean ±SD age 25.8 ± 3.5 y, height 1.96 ± 0.07 m, mass 94.8 ± 8.2 kg) completed 3 maximal drop-jump attempts onto a jump mat at 4 randomly assigned box heights and 3 countermovement-jump trials.

Results:

No statistical difference was observed between 3 trials for both the RSI and JH variable at all the tested drop heights. The RSI for drop-jump heights from 20 cm resulted in a coefficient of variation (CV) = 3.1% and an intraclass correlation (ICC α) = .96, 40 cm resulted in a CV = 3.0% and an ICC α = .95, and 50 cm resulted in a CV = 2.1% and an ICC α = .99. The JH variable at the 40-cm drop-jump height resulted in the highest reliability CV = 2.8% and an ICC α = .98.

Conclusion:

When assessing the RSI the 20-, 40-, and 50-cm drop heights are recommended with this population. When assessing large groups it appears that only 1 trial is required when assessing the RSI variable from the 20, 40-, and 50-cm drop heights.

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Jacqueline Tran, Anthony J. Rice, Luana C. Main and Paul B. Gastin

Purpose:

To investigate changes in physiology, performance, and training practices of elite Australian rowers over 6 mo.

Methods:

Twenty-one elite rowers (14 male, 7 female) were monitored throughout 2 phases: phase 1 (specific preparation) and phase 2 (domestic competition). Incremental tests and rowing-ergometer time trials over 100, 500, 2000, and 6000 m were conducted at the start of the season, midseason, and late season. Weekly external (frequency, duration, distance rowed) and internal (T2minute method) loads are reported.

Results:

Heavyweight male rowers achieved moderate improvements in VO2max and power at VO2max. Most other changes in physiology and performance were small or unclear. External loads decreased from phase 1 to phase 2 (duration 19.3 to 18.0 h/wk, distance rowed 140 to 125 km/wk, respectively). Conversely, internal loads increased (phase 1 = 19.0 T2hours, phase 2 = 20.3 T2hours). Low-intensity training predominated (~80% of training hours at T1 and T2), and high-intensity training was greater in phase 2. Training was rowing-focused (68% of training duration), although 32% of training time was spent in nonspecific modes. The distribution of specificity was not different between phases.

Conclusion:

Physiology and performance results were stable over the 6-mo period. Training-load patterns differed depending on the measure, highlighting the importance of monitoring both external and internal loads. The distribution of intensity was somewhat polarized, and substantial volumes of nonspecific training were undertaken. Experimental studies should investigate the effects of different distributions of intensity and specificity on rowing performance.

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Marjan Someeh, Ali Asghar Norasteh, Hassan Daneshmandi and Abbas Asadi

Context:

Ankle sprains or chronic ankle instability (CAI) is common in athletes and a common method for decreasing the effects of ankle instable is using tape.

Objective:

To determine whether Mulligan ankle taping (MAT) influenced the functional performance (FP) tests in athletes with and without CAI.

Design:

A cross-sectional study using a within-subject experimental design between four ankle conditions (taped and untaped, athletes with and without CAI).

Setting:

Research laboratory.

Participants:

Sixteen professional athletes with unilateral CAI (10 men and 6 women; age 23.2 ± 3 years, height 175.4 ± 10.3 cm, weight 73 ± 14.5 kg, and body mass index 23.8 ± 3.6%) and 16 uninjured professional athletes (10 men and 6 women; age 22.8 ± 1.7 years, height 173.6 ± 12.2 cm, weight 66.4 ± 11.4 kg, and body mass index 22.2 ± 3.3%) volunteered to participant in this study.

Intervention:

Mulligan ankle taping.

Main Outcome Measures:

FP tests including single leg hopping course, Figure-of-8 hop and side hop were measured for both the groups in two conditions: taped and untaped.

Results:

There were significant differences between injured and uninjured athletes in all FP tests (P < .05). MAT significantly improved FP tests in both groups (P < .05).

Conclusion:

We found that MAT can improve FP tests in athletes with CAI and uninjured athletes. Therefore, it seems that MAT can be an effective method for enhancing athletes’ performance in sports that require lateral movements.

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Michael Fuchs, Oliver Faude, Melissa Wegmann and Tim Meyer

Purpose:

To overcome the limitations of traditional 1-dimensional fitness tests in analyzing physiological properties of badminton players, a badminton-specific endurance test (BST) was created. This study aimed at analyzing the influence of various fitness dimensions on BST performance.

Methods:

18 internationally competing male German badminton players (22.4 ± 3.2 y, 79.2 ± 7.7 kg, 1.84 ± 0.06 m, world-ranking position [WRP] 21–501) completed a straight-sprint test, a change-of-direction speed test, various jump tests (countermovement jump, drop jump, standing long jump), a multistage running test (MST), and the BST. During this on-court field test players have to respond to a computerized sign indicating direction and speed of badminton-specific movements by moving into the corresponding corners.

Results:

Significant correlations were found between performance in MST and BST (individual anaerobic threshold [IAT], r = .63, P = .005; maximum velocity [Vmax], r = .60, P = .009). A negative correlation (r = –.59, P = .014) was observed between IAT in BST and drop-jump contact time. No further associations between performance indices could be detected. Apart from a small portion explained by MST results (IAT, R 2 = .40; Vmax, R 2 = .36), the majority of BST performance cannot be explained by the determined physiological correlates. Moreover, it was impossible to predict the WRP of a player on the basis of BST results (r = –.15, P = .55).

Conclusions:

Neither discipline-specific performance nor basic physiological properties were appropriately reflected by a BST in elite badminton players. This does not substantiate its validity for regular use as a testing tool. However, it may be useful for monitoring on-court training sessions.

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Claire J. Brady, Andrew J. Harrison, Eamonn P. Flanagan, G. Gregory Haff and Thomas M. Comyns

Purpose: To examine the relationships between the isometric midthigh pull (IMTP), isometric squat (ISqT), and sprint acceleration performance in track-and-field sprinters and to determine whether there are differences between men and women. Methods: Fifteen male and 10 female sprinters performed 3 maximal-effort IMTPs, ISqTs, and 3 × 30-m sprints from blocks. Results: Among the men, the results showed significant negative correlations between IMTP and ISqT peak force; relative peak force; force at 100, 150, and 200 ms; rate of force development (0–150 and 0–200 ms); and impulse (0–200 ms) and 0- to 5-m time (r = −.517 to −.714; P < .05). IMTP impulse (B = −0.582, P = .023) and ISqT relative peak force (B = −0.606, P = .017) significantly predicted 0- to 5-m time. Among the women, no IMTP or ISqT variables significantly correlated with any sprint times. Men measured significantly higher than women for all IMTP measures except relative peak force. Men were significantly faster than women at all splits. When comparing measures of the ISqT, there were no significant differences between men and women. Conclusions: Variables measured during the IMTP and ISqT significantly correlated with 0- to 5-m sprint performance in male athletes. Isometric strength can have a sizable influence on 0- to 5-m time, but in some cases, the maximum effect could be very small.

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Ibrahim M. Altubasi

keeping the hip joints in neutral rotation. Two-dimensional scout images were taken to determine the midthigh region. The scout images were used to measure the NSA of the femurs. Then, the participants performed four functional performance tests in the following order: timed up and go, self-selected 10-m

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Herbert Wagner, Patrick Fuchs, Andrea Fusco, Philip Fuchs, Jeffrey W. Bell and Serge P. von Duvillard

subjects performed a 30-m sprint test and a team handball specific game-based performance test after a 20 minutes of general and team handball specific warm-up. The test block sequence was randomized between first and second test block and between strength and jump tests within the testing group. To

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Lütfiye Akkurt, İpek Alemdaroğlu Gürbüz, Ayşe Karaduman and Öznur Tunca Yilmaz

chronometer, the child was allowed to rest if he needed and then directed to complete the test. The distance walked during the 6 minutes was recorded in meters ( 26 ). Other performance tests included a 10-m walk, Gower’s (from a supine to a standing position), and the ascent/descent of 4 steps. During these

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Jeffrey R. Doeringer, Megan Colas, Corey Peacock and Dustin R. Gatens

-round training schedule), the sample size was based on availability. Instrumentation Not many instruments were used for this study. The Likert scale of muscle soreness were measured prior to muscle performance tests, 24 hr after the intervention, and 48 hr after intervention. The Likert scale for perceived pain