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Florence-Emilie Kinnafick, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Sam O. Shepherd, Oliver J. Wilson, Anton J.M. Wagenmakers and Christopher S. Shaw

barriers and facilitators within the delivery); and (e) maintenance (participant experience of persistence to exercise once the program had ended). Participants All 46 participants (adherers and nonadherers) from the intervention were invited, via e-mail, to participate in one of three focus groups between

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Alan L. Smith

sport persistence ( García-Calvo et al., 2014 ; Jõesaar, Hein, & Hagger, 2011 , 2012 ; Vazou, Ntoumanis, & Duda, 2006 ). Moreover, greater ego-involving peer climate perceptions have been shown to associate with greater perceptions of negative sport behaviors and athlete burnout perceptions ( Davies

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Michael A. Riley, Suvobrata Mitra, Thomas A. Stoffregen and Michael T. Turvey

We examined the potentially exploratory and performatory nature of postural sway. Subjects stood upright or leaned forward, with eyes open or closed. Postural data were analyzed using a statistical mechanics analysis of center of pressure (COP) trajectories, which examines the fractional Brownian nature of postural sway. Positive correlations (persistence) over short time scales are hypothesized to reflect exploratory behavior, and negative correlations (antipersistence) over long time scales are hypothesized to reflect performatory behavior. When leaning, subjects exhibited decreased levels of persistence (decreased correlation) and increased levels of antipersistence (increased correlation) than when upright. With eyes open, subjects showed decreased levels of persistence and decreased levels of antipersistence than with eyes closed. Effects of vision were more pronounced when leaning. Evidence for direction-specific exploration (based upon root mean square variability analysis) was considered. Task-specificity and trade-offs between biomechanical and task constraints in models of postural control were discussed.

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R. Scott Kretchmar

The 2012 Academy meeting focused on research related to increasing levels of physical activity and promoting persistence. Speakers agreed that answers would be hard to come by but that progress was possible. Emphases for potential solutions ranged from the cellular to the cultural, from neural mechanisms to symbolic processes, from particle physics to philosophy. Strategies for intervention were diverse and refected a series of dynamical tensions—behavioral and nonbehavioral, cognitive and noncognitive, traditional and nontra-ditional, environmental and motivational, and finally medical in contrast to educational. It is likely, given the complexities inherent in increasing movement behaviors and assuring persistence, that various blends of solutions emerging from multiple points on the disciplinary landscape and honoring truths that run across these strategic tensions will be needed.

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Charles B. Corbin, David R. Laurie, Candice Gruger and Betty Smiley

Recent research indicates that females are particularly likely to lack confidence in their abilities to perform physical activities. One theory of instruction suggests a need for educational support for developing competence, self-confidence, and persistence in physical activities. Vicarious success in the form of audiovisual presentations is suggested as one method of educational support which may be effective in enhancing confidence, particularly among females. Thirty-nine adult women participating in an exercise class were studied to determine if vicarious success presented via audiovisuals was effective in altering self-confidence, commitment to physical activity, and physical activity involvement. A discriminant function analysis indicated a significant difference between treatment and control groups on a profile of improved confidence/attitude/activity involvement, with the treatment group showing a more positive profile. Vicarious success experiences enhanced self-confidence, and there was a trend toward greater persistence in activity among those experiencing vicarious success through audiovisual presentations.

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Ping Xiang, Ron McBride and April Bruene

Using achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice as theoretical frameworks, this study examined relationships between parents’ beliefs and their children’s motivation in an elementary physical education running program. Participants included 102 parents and their children (49 boys; 53 girls) in the third and fourth grades. The parents completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, competence beliefs, task values, and gender stereotypic beliefs about running. Children’s persistence/effort was assessed by the number of laps run/walked over the year-long running program. Performance was measured by the timed mile run. Results indicated that only parents’ competence/value beliefs were predictive of their children’s persistence/effort and mile run performance. Gender stereotypic beliefs influenced achievement goals the parents adopted for their children. Findings provided empirical support for the importance of parental beliefs for children’s motivation in physical activity.

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Frode Stenseng and Lina Harvold Dalskau

Two studies were conducted to investigate the paradoxical behavior of obsessively passionate individuals: they tend to continue involvement in their passion activity despite reporting the activity as a source of ill-being. We suggested that elevated self-esteem in activity engagement could be one such persistence-promoting factor. In Study 1, we found that obsessively passionate individuals reported lower levels of global self-esteem compared with harmoniously passionate individuals, whereas they reported similar levels of activity-related self-esteem. We suggest that this indicates that obsessively passionate individuals try to compensate for low global self-esteem by utilizing self-esteem contingencies in their passion activity. Study 2 showed that activity-related self-esteem among obsessively passionate individuals was found to be strongly related to comparative performance evaluations, whereas no such relationship was found among harmoniously passionate individuals. We suggest that self-esteem contingencies related to comparative performance criteria represent a persistence-promoting factor among obsessively passionate individuals.

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Jackie L. Puhl

The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, persistence of obesity over time, and health risks associated with it place childhood obesity among the highest national health concerns. The extent to which excess caloric intake or insufficient energy expenditure contribute to childhood obesity has not yet been clearly delineated. This report examines the components of the energy alance equation, focusing on the major components of energy expenditure (rest, thermic effect of food, and physical activity) whereby differences may affect energy balance and promote or perpetuate obesity among children. Some implications of differences in energy expenditure to childhood obesity and areas of needed research are suggested.

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Janet S. Fink

In this article, from the 2015 Earle F. Zeigler Lecture Award presented in Ottawa, Canada, I hope to create greater awareness of how sexism remains uncontested in sport. I highlight the persistence of sexism in sport and note the form of sexism is different from that found in other industries. I also argue that sexism is treated quite differently than other types of discrimination in sport and provide examples of its impact. I suggest that adapting Shaw and Frisby’s (2006) alternative frame of gender equity is necessary for real change to occur and call on all NASSM members as researchers, teachers, or participants to take action to eradicate sexism in sport.

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Jeremy R. Hawkins, Kayla E. Gonzalez and Kristin J. Heumann

Clinical Scenario:

Concussions are a prevalent topic in medicine. Concussion symptoms include headaches, dizziness, nausea, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and cognitive impairments, the persistence of which is referred to as postconcussion syndrome. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been proposed and evaluated as an additional treatment of these symptoms. HBOT is an innovative approach that has been considered by many but has received both criticism and acceptance.

Clinical Question:

Is HBOT an effective means of reducing symptoms for individuals suffering from postconcussion syndrome (persistence of symptoms for >3 mo)?

Summary of Search:

The literature was searched for studies that were relevant to the clinical question. Literature provided 5 level 1 studies that were relevant enough to be considered.

Clinical Bottom Line:

Based on the research that is available, the authors conclude that there is more evidence to refute the use of HBOT for postconcussion syndrome than to support it.

Strength of Recommendation:

Four studies disprove the use of HBOT; 1 study supported the use of HBOT. These 5 studies are the same level of evidence (level 1) and provide significant findings in their studies. The strength of this recommendation is a B according to the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine.