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Kin-Kit Li, Lorna Ng, Sheung-Tak Cheng and Helene H. Fung

Despite the evident benefits, most adults do not reach the recommended physical activity (PA) level ( Haskell et al., 2007 ). It is important for PA promotion that guidelines for PA, which describe how much PA one should do to obtain the benefits, are supplemented with persuasive messages designed

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Katie L. Cederberg, Robert W. Motl and Edward McAuley

physical function, based on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and this coincides with elevated risk for developing future disability ( Motl, Chaparro, Hernandez, Balto, & Sandroff, 2016 ; Motl et al., 2015 ). There is increasing interest in the application of physical activity as a behavioral

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Jennifer Brunet, Eva Guérin and Nicolas Speranzini

the costs for medical care, social services, and long-term care ( Parker & Thorslund, 2007 ). Physical activity and exercise can delay the onset or slow the progression of age-related changes ( Vogel et al., 2009 ), and thus help to counterbalance the effects of aging and enable older adults to

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Katie J. Thralls and Susan S. Levy

optimize QOL. Research supports that physical activity improves the likelihood of maintaining physical independence ( Andreyeva & Sturm, 2006 ; Paterson & Washburn, 2010 ). In aging, physical activity slows the natural decline in physiological systems, prevents and treats chronic diseases, and improves

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Cassandra J. de Lacy-Vawdon, Ruth Klein, Joanna Schwarzman, Genevieve Nolan, Renee de Silva, David Menzies and Ben J. Smith

, employment, technology, economics and others, to facilitate the maintenance of mental and physical capacities, and prevent functional loss in older age ( Foster & Walker, 2015 ). Whilst physical activity (PA) is well-known for its impact on chronic disease prevention among older adults, it has also been

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Diana Castaneda-Gameros, Sabi Redwood and Janice L. Thompson

et al. ( 2001 ), which identifies someone as frail by the presence of three or more of five criteria (unintentional weight loss, exhaustion, weakness, slow walking speed, and low physical activity). Frailty is an important health concern as it has been associated with increased risks of falls

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Aurora de Fátima G.C. Mafra Cabral, Marcelo Medeiros Pinheiro, Charlles H.M. Castro, Marco Túlio De Mello, Sérgio Tufik and Vera Lúcia Szejnfeld

The assessment of physical activity has been the subject of several studies, with the increasing description of methods to its measurement at the individual and population levels ( Warren et al., 2010 ). Accelerometers, pedometers, global positioning systems, and other motion capture devices are

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Kenneth E. Powell and Steven N. Blair

Nearly 25 years ago, Jeremy Morris ( 1994 ) declared physical activity to be the “best buy in public health.” Morris, the epidemiologist credited with publishing the first modern scientific evidence of the cardiovascular health benefits of physical activity ( Morris, Heady, Raffle, Roberts, & Parks

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Scherezade K. Mama, Lorna H. McNeill, Erica G. Soltero, Raul Orlando Edwards and Rebecca E. Lee

Hispanic and 18.5% of non-Hispanic Black adults meet aerobic leisure-time physical activity guidelines (at least 150 min of moderate-intensity or 75 min of vigorous-intensity physical activity per week), and women continue to be less physically active than men ( Ward, Schiller, & Freeman, 2014 ). Women of

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Thomas W. Rowland

A growing body of evidence implicates the existence of a functional subconscious governor in the brain, which controls level of habitual physical activity. Such a biologic control, acting in a classic feedback loop mechanism, might serve to contribute to the defense of energy balance. Many questions remain unanswered regarding the pliability of biologic control of activity and the extent that it might dictate daily energy expenditure. A consideration of this concept bears importance for those seeking an understanding of the mechanisms, prevention, and treatment of obesity as well as the link between exercise and health in the general population.