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Daniel P. Hatfield, Virginia R. Chomitz, Kenneth Chui, Jennifer M. Sacheck and Christina D. Economo

Background:

Associations between physical activity (PA) intensity and volume and adolescents’ cardiometabolic health have research, policy, and practice implications. This study compares associations between cardiometabolic risk factors and 1) moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) minutes versus total PA volume (accelerometer-derived total activity counts, TAC) and 2) light PA volume (counts at light intensity, L-TAC) versus moderate-to-vigorous PA volume (counts at moderate-to-vigorous intensity, MV-TAC).

Methods:

2105 adolescents from 2003– 2006 NHANES were included. Independent variables were MVPA minutes, TAC, L-TAC, and MV-TAC. Regression models tested associations between PA variables and continuous metabolic risk index (CMRI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL, insulin, and triglycerides.

Results:

TAC demonstrated a slightly stronger inverse association with CMRI (P = .004) than did MVPA (P = .013). TAC and MVPA were both associated with systolic and diastolic pressure, HDL, and insulin; associations were similar or slightly stronger for TAC. L-TAC and MV-TAC were both associated with CMRI and HDL. Only L-TAC was associated with diastolic pressure. Only MV-TAC was associated with waist circumference, systolic pressure, and insulin.

Conclusions:

Compared with MVPA minutes, TAC demonstrates similar or slightly stronger associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. L-TAC and MV-TAC appear similarly associated with adolescents’ clustered risk but differently associated with individual risk factors.

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MeLisa Creamer, Heather R. Bowles, Belinda von Hofe, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Harold W. Kohl III and Adrian Bauman

Background:

Computer-assisted techniques may be a useful way to enhance physical activity surveillance and increase accuracy of reported behaviors.

Purpose:

Evaluate the reliability and validity of a physical activity (PA) self-report instrument administered by telephone and internet.

Methods:

The telephone-administered Active Australia Survey was adapted into 2 forms for internet self-administration: survey questions only (internet-text) and with videos demonstrating intensity (internet-video). Data were collected from 158 adults (20–69 years, 61% female) assigned to telephone (telephone-interview) (n = 56), internet-text (n = 51), or internet-video (n = 51). Participants wore an accelerometer and completed a logbook for 7 days. Test-retest reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Convergent validity was assessed using Spearman correlations.

Results:

Strong test-retest reliability was observed for PA variables in the internet-text (ICC = 0.69 to 0.88), internet-video (ICC = 0.66 to 0.79), and telephone-interview (ICC = 0.69 to 0.92) groups (P-values < 0.001). For total PA, correlations (ρ) between the survey and Actigraph+logbook were ρ = 0.47 for the internet-text group, ρ = 0.57 for the internet-video group, and ρ = 0.65 for the telephone-interview group. For vigorous-intensity activity, the correlations between the survey and Actigraph+logbook were 0.52 for internet-text, 0.57 for internet-video, and 0.65 for telephone-interview (P < .05).

Conclusions:

Internet-video of the survey had similar test-retest reliability and convergent validity when compared with the telephone-interview, and should continue to be developed.

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Arto Gråstén, Anthony Watt, Jarmo Liukkonen and Timo Jaakkola

Background:

The study examined the effects of school-based program on students’ self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity and physical competence, and associated links to gender, grade, body mass index, and physical education assessments.

Methods:

Participants were 240 middle school students (143 intervention, 97 control) from 3 small cities in North-East Finland. The intervention group received task-involving climate support in physical education classes and additional physical activities during school days across 1 year.

Results:

The intervention group’s physical competence increased, whereas the control group’s competence remained stable across the period. However, physical activity levels were stable in both groups. The findings also showed that body mass index was negatively associated with physical competence and activity in the intervention group at the follow-up measure. Physical education assessments were positively related with only the baseline scores of physical competence in the intervention group. In contrast, the assessments had positive relationships with physical competence and activity of control group students.

Conclusions:

The present program was an effective protocol to increase student’s perceptions of physical competence. Since the quantity of school physical education including recess activities cannot be dramatically increased, positive learning experiences should be provided, and thus, support perceptions of physical competence.

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Evelin Lätt, Jarek Mäestu and Jaak Jürimäe

Background: Little is known about the impact of sedentary and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) bouts on cardiometabolic health. The aim was to examine how the accumulation of bouts of sedentary time and MVPA associates to cardiometabolic health in children independently of total sedentary and MVPA time. Methods: In a cross-sectional study with 123 boys (10–13 y), sedentary and MVPA bouts were determined using 7-day accelerometry. Each bout was compared with cardiometabolic risk factors and with the risk score that was calculated using standardized values of body mass index, waist circumference, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, triglycerides, and total cholesterol/high-density cholesterol ratio. Results: Time in 10- to 14-minute sedentary bouts was negatively associated with continuous cardiometabolic risk score in weekdays and weekend days and with triglycerides in a weekend (P < .05). Time accumulated in ≥30-minute sedentary bouts was associated with higher insulin and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance values in weekend (P < .05). Weekday total MVPA and time accumulated in ≥10-minute MVPA bouts were negatively associated with continuous cardiometabolic risk score and body mass index in weekdays (P < .05). No associations were found between total sedentary time and metabolic health. Conclusion: Significant associations between sedentary and MVPA bouts with cardiometabolic risk factors suggest the need of the more detailed analysis for sedentary behavior and its effects on health risks.

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Melody Oliver, Hannah Badland, Suzanne Mavoa, Mitch J. Duncan and Scott Duncan

Background:

Global positioning systems (GPS), geographic information systems (GIS), and accelerometers are powerful tools to explain activity within a built environment, yet little integration of these tools has taken place. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of combining GPS, GIS, and accelerometry to understand transport-related physical activity (TPA) in adults.

Methods:

Forty adults wore an accelerometer and portable GPS unit over 7 consecutive days and completed a demographics questionnaire and 7-day travel log. Accelerometer and GPS data were extracted for commutes to/from workplace and integrated into a GIS database. GIS maps were generated to visually explore physical activity intensity, GPS speeds and routes traveled.

Results:

GPS, accelerometer, and survey data were collected for 37 participants. Loss of GPS data was substantial due to a range of methodological issues, such as low battery life, signal drop out, and participant noncompliance. Nonetheless, greater travel distances and significantly higher speeds were observed for motorized trips when compared with TPA.

Conclusions:

Pragmatic issues of using GPS monitoring to understand TPA behaviors and methodological recommendations for future research were identified. Although methodologically challenging, the combination of GPS monitoring, accelerometry and GIS technologies holds promise for understanding TPA within the built environment.

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Stephen D. Herrmann, Tiago V. Barreira, Minsoo Kang and Barbara E. Ainsworth

Background:

There is little consensus on how many hours of accelerometer wear time is needed to reflect a usual day. This study identifies the bias in daily physical activity (PA) estimates caused by accelerometer wear time.

Methods:

124 adults (age = 41 ± 11 years; BMI = 27 ± 7 kg·m-2) contributed approximately 1,200 days accelerometer wear time. Five 40 day samples were randomly selected with 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 h·d-1 of wear time. Four semisimulation data sets (10, 11, 12, 13 h·d-1) were created from the reference 14 h·d-1 data set to assess Absolute Percent Error (APE). Repeated-measures ANOVAs compared min·d-1 between 10, 11, 12, 13 h·d-1 and the reference 14 h·d-1 for inactivity (<100 cts·min-1), light (100−1951 cts·min-1), moderate (1952−5724 cts·min-1), and vigorous (≥5725 cts·min-1) PA.

Results:

APE ranged from 5.6%−41.6% (10 h·d-1 = 28.2%−41.6%; 11 h·d-1 = 20.3%−36.0%; 12 h·d-1 = 13.5%−14.3%; 13 h·d-1 = 5.6%−7.8%). Min·d-1 differences were observed for inactivity, light, and moderate PA between 10, 11, 12, and 13 h·d-1 and the reference (P < .05).

Conclusions:

This suggests a minimum accelerometer wear time of 13 h·d-1 is needed to provide a valid measure of daily PA when 14 h·d-1 is used as a reference.

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Barbara B. Brown and Carol M. Werner

Background:

Accelerometer output feedback might enable assessment of recall biases for moderate bouts by obese and nonobese individuals; accelerometry might also help residents recall destinations for moderate-intensity walking bouts.

Methods:

Adult residents’ 1-week accelerometer-measured physical activity and obesity status were measured before and after a new rail stop opened (n = 51 Time 1; n = 47 Time 2). Participants recalled the week’s walking bouts, described them as brisk (moderate) or not, and reported a rail stop destination or not.

Results:

At the end of the week, we provided accelerometry output to residents as a prompt. Recall of activity intensity was accurate for about 60% of bouts. Nonobese participants had more moderate bouts and more “stealth exercise” —moderate bouts recalled as not brisk—than did obese individuals. Obese participants had more overestimates—recalling light bouts as brisk walks—than did nonobese individuals. Compared with unprompted recall, accelerometry-prompted recalls allowed residents to describe where significantly more moderate bouts of activity occurred.

Conclusion:

Coupling accelerometry feedback with self-report improves research by measuring the duration, intensity, and destination of walking bouts. Recall errors and different patterns of errors by obese and nonobese individuals underscore the importance of validation by accelerometry.

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Greg Welk, Youngwon Kim, Robin P. Shook, Laura Ellingson and Roberto L. Lobelo

Background:

The study evaluated the concurrent and criterion validity of a new, disposable activity monitor designed to provide objective data on physical activity and energy expenditure in clinical populations.

Methods:

A sample of healthy adults (n = 52) wore the disposable Metria IH1 along with the established Sensewear armband (SWA) monitor for a 1-week period. Concurrent validity was examined by evaluating the statistical equivalence of estimates from the Metria and the SWA. Criterion validity was examined by comparing the relative accuracy of the Metria IH1 and the SWA for assessing walking/running. The absolute validity of the 2 monitors was compared by computing correlations and mean absolute percent error (MAPE) relative to criterion data from a portable metabolic analyzer.

Results:

The output from 2 monitors was highly correlated (correlations > 0.90) and the summary measures yielded nearly identical allocations of time spent in physical activity and energy expenditure. The monitors yielded statistically equivalent estimates and had similar absolute validity relative to the criterion measure (12% to 15% error).

Conclusions:

The disposable nature of the adhesive Metria IH1 monitor offers promise for clinical evaluation of physical activity behavior in patients. Additional research is needed to test utility for counseling and behavior applications.

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Ryan McGrath, Chantal A. Vella, Philip W. Scruggs, Mark D. Peterson, Christopher J. Williams and David R. Paul

Background: This investigation sought to determine how accelerometer wear (1) biased estimates of sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA), (2) affected misclassifications for meeting the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, and (3) impacted the results of regression models examining the association between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and a clinically relevant health outcome. Methods: A total of 100 participants [age: 20.6 (7.9) y] wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer for 15.9 (1.6) hours per day (reference dataset) on the hip. The BOD POD was used to determine body fat percentage. A data removal technique was applied to the reference dataset to create individual datasets with wear time ranging from 15 to 10 hours per day for SB and each intensity of PA. Results: Underestimations of SB and each intensity of PA increased as accelerometer wear time decreased by up to 167.2 minutes per day. These underestimations resulted in Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans misclassification rates of up to 42.9%. The regression models for the association between MVPA and body fat percentage demonstrated changes in the estimates for each wear-time adherence level when compared to the model using the reference MVPA data. Conclusions: Increasing accelerometer wear improves daily estimates of SB and PA, thereby also improving the precision of statistical inferences that are made from accelerometer data.

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John R. Sirard, Ann Forsyth, J. Michael Oakes and Kathryn H. Schmitz

Background:

The purpose of this study was to determine 1) the test-retest reliability of adult accelerometer-measured physical activity, and 2) how data processing decisions affect physical activity levels and test-retest reliability.

Methods:

143 people wore the ActiGraph accelerometer for 2 7-day periods, 1 to 4 weeks apart. Five algorithms, varying nonwear criteria (20 vs. 60 min of 0 counts) and minimum wear requirements (6 vs. 10 hrs/day for ≥ 4 days) and a separate algorithm requiring ≥ 3 counts per min and ≥ 2 hours per day, were used to process the accelerometer data.

Results:

Processing the accelerometer data with different algorithms resulted in different levels of counts per day, sedentary, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Reliability correlations were very good to excellent (ICC = 0.70−0.90) for almost all algorithms and there were no significant differences between physical activity measures at Time 1 and Time 2.

Conclusions:

This paper presents the first assessment of test-retest reliability of the Actigraph over separate administrations in free-living subjects. The ActiGraph was highly reliable in measuring activity over a 7-day period in natural settings but data were sensitive to the algorithms used to process them.