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Joowon Lee, Baojiang Chen, Harold W. Kohl III, Carolyn E. Barlow, Chong Do Lee, Nina B. Radford, Laura F. DeFina and Kelley P. Gabriel

, days per week ( Pate et al., 1995 ). In the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines (PAG) for Americans, experts added the recommendation that muscle-strengthening activities (MSAs) involving all major muscle groups be performed 2 or more days per week and cited additional benefits of increased bone strength

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Karin A. Pfeiffer and Michael J. Wierenga

Physical inactivity is a recognized independent risk factor for mortality and chronic morbidity in adults ( Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2018 ). Specific to the U.S. context, physical inactivity is estimated on average to cause 11% of premature mortality and 7% of disease burden

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Miriam E. Nelson, William L. Haskell and Mary Kennedy

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Jakob L. Vingren, James R. Morrow Jr., Elaine Trudelle-Jackson and Merly T. Mathew

Background:

Aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities are related to morbidities and mortality. Resistance exercise/strength training items are included in national surveys, but the manner in which muscle-strengthening activity is queried varies among these surveys.

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to use different self-report measures to examine the prevalence of meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans regarding muscle-strengthening activities among women.

Methods:

We surveyed 606 community-dwelling women at 4 points in time across a 1.5- to 3-year time period to determine whether the respondents met the national physical activity guidelines for performing muscle-strengthening activities ≥ 2 days per week.

Results:

Results were consistent across time but depended on the manner in which the question was asked. If asked to reflect over the past month or a general question about the typical number of days engaged, approximately 40% of women reported engaging in ≥ 2 days per week of resistance exercise/strength training. However, when reports were obtained weekly for 13 weeks, only approximately 18% of respondents met the guidelines.

Conclusion:

Results indicate that the timing and nature of questioning can substantially influence the self-reported prevalence of muscle-strengthening physical activities for community-dwelling women.

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Suzanna M. Martinez, Elva M. Arredondo, Scott Roesch, Kevin Patrick, Guadalupe X. Ayala and John P. Elder

Background:

U.S. Latinos engage in nonleisure-time walking (NLTW) more than other ethno-racial groups. Studies are needed to explore factors associated with NLTW to inform interventions for effective physical activity promotion.

Purpose:

To examine the social-ecological correlates of NLTW among Mexican-origin Latinos.

Methods:

Individual, social, and environmental level factors and PA were assessed in a telephone survey completed by 672 Mexican-origin adults randomly sampled in San Diego County. Data were collected in 2006 and analyzed in 2009.

Results:

Participants were mostly female (71%), with an average age of 39 years. Less than one-third met PA guidelines for NLTW (29%). Structural equation modeling showed that NLTW was positively associated with being female, but negatively associated with living in the U.S. ≥ 12 years, and being U.S.-born.

Conclusions:

In this sample NLTW differed by various indicators of acculturation and gender. These findings might help inform the development of interventions to promote NLTW and thus physical activity in Mexican-origin adults.

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Marcus K. Taylor, Ricardo Pietrobon, Deng Pan, Michael Huff and Laurence D. Higgins

Background:

Physical inactivity is a risk factor for poor mental health. The present study evaluates the association between mental health and physical activity levels according to the Healthy People 2010 guidelines in a large national sample.

Methods:

Participants (N = 41,914) were selected from the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Primary predictor variable was physical activity level, and primary outcome measure was frequency of mental distress. Specific outcomes of anxiety and depressive symptoms were also measured.

Results:

Compared with those meeting the Healthy People 2010 guidelines, sedentary participants were 1.31 times more likely to experience 14 or more days of mental distress during the past 30 days (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.16, 1.48), 1.34 times more likely to experience anxiety symptoms (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.21, 1.49), and 1.22 times more likely to experience depressive symptoms (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.10, 1.36). Comparing those participants falling short of the Healthy People 2010 recommendation with those meeting the guideline, no significant group differences were demonstrated relative to frequency of mental distress. Those meeting the recommendation were more likely to have 14 or more days of anxiety symptoms during the past 30 days (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.02, 1.17).

Conclusions:

Our results suggest that being sedentary is clearly associated with more aversive psychological symptoms. However, performing enough physical activity to meet the Healthy People 2010 guideline may not be associated with better psychological status than minimal amounts of physical activity.

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Alyson J. Littman, Isabel G. Jacobson, Edward J. Boyko and Tyler C. Smith

Background:

Understanding physical activity (PA) after discharge from the military can inform theory on the role of habit and reinforcement in behavior maintenance and has implications for this population’s future health.

Methods:

Using data from 28,866 Millennium Cohort Study participants (n = 3782 of whom were discharged during the years between assessments), we 1) investigated changes in meeting federal PA guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) following military discharge and 2) determined predictors of meeting these guidelines after discharge.

Results:

MVPA declined more in those who were discharged than in those who were not (−17.8 percentage points vs. −2.7 percentage points), with greater declines in former active-duty personnel, those who had deployed with combat exposures, had 14 to 25 years of service, and had been discharged more recently (>2 years prior). In those who were discharged, being normal or overweight (vs. obese), and a nonsmoker or former smoker (vs. current smoker) were positively associated with meeting MVPA Guidelines at follow-up, while meeting MVPA Guidelines at baseline and depression were inversely associated.

Conclusions:

Reductions in MVPA were substantial and unexpected. Increased understanding of transitional periods that may benefit from interventions to mitigate declines in PA will help prevent excess weight gain and physical inactivity-associated health consequences.

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Adrienne J. McNamara, Michael J. Pavol and Katherine B. Gunter

Objective:

Community-based exercise programs are popular for achieving physical activity among older adults, but the amount of physical activity obtained through such programs is unknown. This study quantified the bone-loading forces and levels of cardiovascular activity associated with participation in “Better Bones and Balance” (BBB), a community-based fall- and fracture-prevention program for older adults.

Methods:

Thirty-six postmenopausal women age 73.2 ± 7.6 yr engages in BBB participated in this study. Ground-reaction forces (GRFs) associated with BBB exercises were evaluated using a force platform. Session and weekly totals of minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total time spent above 55% maximum heart rate (HR) were measured using accelerometers and HR monitors, respectively.

Results:

BBB exercises produced mean 1-leg GRFs of 1.4–2.2 units body weight. Weekly BBB participation was associated with 126 ± 31 min of MVPA.

Conclusion:

Activity obtained by BBB participation meets recommended guidelines for skeletal and cardiovascular health.

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James F. Sallis, Kevin Patrick and Barbara J. Long

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Saori I. Braun, Youngdeok Kim, Amy E. Jetton, Minsoo Kang and Don W. Morgan

The purpose of this study was to determine if bone health at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) can be predicted from objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity data in postmenopausal women. Waist-mounted ActiGraph GT1M and GT3X devices were used to quantify levels of sedentary and moderate-to-vigorous intensity behavior during a 7-day period in 44 older females. Bone health (normal and osteopenia/osteoporosis) of FN and LS was derived from T scores generated using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Binomial logistic regression analysis indicated that sedentary time and number of breaks in sedentary behavior were significant predictors of osteopenia/osteoporosis at the FN, but not at the LS. Adherence to physical activity guidelines was not a significant predictor of bone health at the FN or LS. Our findings suggest that more frequent interruptions in sedentary behavior are associated with improved bone health in postmenopausal women.