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Laura A. Garvican, Kristal Hammond, Matthew C. Varley, Christopher J. Gore, Francois Billaut and Robert J. Aughey


This study investigated the decrement in running performance of elite soccer players competing at low altitude and time course for abatement of these decrements.


Twenty elite youth soccer players had their activity profile, in a sea-level (SL) and 2 altitude (Alt, 1600 m, d 4, and d 6) matches, measured with a global positioning system. Measures expressed in meters per minute of match time were total distance, low- and high-velocity running (LoVR, 0.01–4.16 m/s; HiVR, 4.17–10.0 m/s), and frequency of maximal accelerations (>2.78 m/s2). The peak and subsequent stanza for each measure were identified and a transient fatigue index calculated. Mean heart rate (HR) during the final minute of a submaximal running task (5 min, 11 km/h) was recorded at SL and for 10 d at Alt. Differences were determined between SL and Alt using percentage change and effect-size (ES) statistic with 90% confidence intervals.


Mean HR almost certainly increased on d 1 (5.4%, ES 1.01 ± 0.35) and remained probably elevated on both d 2 (ES 0.42 ± 0.31) and d3 (ES 0.30 ± 0.25), returning to baseline at d 5. Total distance was almost certainly lower than SL (ES –0.76 ± 0.37) at d 4 and remained probably reduced on d 6 (ES –0.42 ± 0.36). HiVR probably decreased at d 4 vs SL (–0.47 ± 0.59), with no clear effect of altitude at d 6 (–0.08 ± 0.41). Transient fatigue in matches was evident at SL and Alt, with a possibly greater decrement at Alt.


Despite some physiological adaptation, match running performance of youth soccer players is compromised for at least 6 d at low altitude.

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Massimo Venturelli, David Bishop and Lorenzo Pettene

Young soccer players are usually trained with adult-training methods, even though the physiological adaptations are likely to be very different compared with adults. In contrast, some have suggested training preadolescents only with coordination training. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether coordination or repeated-sprint training better improved speed over 20 m, with and without the ball. Sixteen soccer players (mean age 11 ± 0.5 y) were randomly assigned to a sprint-training group (STG = 7) or a coordination-training group (CTG = 9). The STG trained twice a week for 12 wk and performed 20 repetitions of 20- and 10-m sprints; the CTG performed coordination training (eg, speed ladder running) for the same training duration. Maximal jump height, anthropometric measures, and 20-m sprint time, with and without ball, were evaluated before and after the training period. Statistical significance was determined using two-way ANOVA with repeated measure and Pearson test for correlation. Both groups improved speed without the ball: STG = 3.75 ± 0.10 s to 3.66 ± 0.09 s (P < .05); CTG = 3.64 ± 0.13 s to 3.56 ± 0.13 s (P < .05), with no difference between groups. Sprint time with the ball pre- and posttraining was 4.06 ± 0.11 s and 4.05 ± 0.19 s (P > .05) for STG and 4.04 ± 0.12 s and 3.82 ± 0.15 s (P < .05) for CTG, with a significant difference between groups posttraining (P < .05). There were significant correlations between sprint time without ball, CMJ, and SJ. These data suggest that coordination training increases the speed with the ball more than typical repeated-sprint training. It can be hypothesized that running speed with ball improved more in CTG because this particular action requires improvements in coordination.

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J.Ch. Leblanc, F. Le Gall, V. Grandjean and Ph. Verger

Young, French male athletes undergoing intensive elite sports training at the National Training Centre in Clairefontaine served as the subjects (N = 180; age range: 13 to 16 years) in a 3-year dietary survey aimed at characterizing their nutritional intake in terms of energy, macronutrients, calcium, and iron. Each year, the subjects were grouped by level into 3 promotions so that 9 groups could be studied. Dietary intake data were collected each year for each subject in the 9 groups, using a 5-day food record. The results showed that their total energy intake (TEI) was insufficient for athletes (ranging from 2352 ± 454 to 3395 ± 396 kcal/d as opposed to the recommended range of between 3819 and 5185 kcal/d). Furthermore, their diet was unbalanced, with too great an emphasis upon fatty foods (29.1 ± 2.8 to 34.1 ± 3.1% TEI vs. the 20% recommended), to the detriment of carbohydrates (48.5 ± 4.3 to 56.6 ± 3.1% TEI vs. the 55 to 60% recommended). The calcium intake was too low in 5 of the 9 groups while, in contrast, the iron intake was satisfactory in all groups. Furthermore, during this 3-year period at the Clairefontaine Centre, the subjects significantly (p < .05) improved their calcium and iron intakes (1021 ± 197 and 12 ± 2 mg/d in 1996, 1299 ± 155 and 16 ± 2 mg/d in 1997, and 1252 ± 184 and 17 ± 2 mg/d in 1998). This rise in micronutrient intakes may have been due to a physiological adaptation to growth or to the positive effects of courses on nutrition given during their stay at the Centre.

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Bradley T. Hayes, Rod A. Harter, Jeffrey J. Widrick, Daniel P. Williams, Mark A. Hoffman and Charlie A. Hicks-Little


Static stretching is commonly used during the treatment and rehabilitation of orthopedic injuries to increase joint range of motion (ROM) and muscle flexibility. Understanding the physiological adaptations that occur in the neuromuscular system as a result of long-term stretching may provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for changes in flexibility.


To examine possible neurological origins and adaptations in the Ia-reflex pathway that allow for increases in flexibility in ankle ROM, by evaluating the reduction in the synaptic transmission of Ia afferents to the motoneuron pool.


Repeated-measures, case-controlled study.


Sports medicine research laboratory.


40 healthy volunteers with no history of cognitive impairment, neurological impairment, or lower extremity surgery or injury within the previous 12 mo.


Presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms were evaluated with a chronic stretching protocol. Twenty subjects stretched 5 times a wk for 6 wk. All subjects were measured at baseline, 3 wk, and 6 wk.

Main Outcome Measures:

Ankle-dorsiflexion ROM, Hmax:Mmax, presynaptic inhibition, and disynaptic reciprocal inhibition.


Only ROM had a significant interaction between group and time, whereas the other dependent variables did not show significant differences. The experimental group had significantly improved ROM from baseline to 3 wk (mean 6.2 ± 0.9, P < .001), 3 wk to 6 wk (mean 5.0 ± 0.8, P < .001), and baseline to 6 wk (mean 11.2 ±0.9, P < .001).


Ankle dorsiflexion increased by 42.25% after 6 wk of static stretching, but no significant neurological changes resulted at any point of the study, contrasting current literature. Significant neuromuscular origins of adaptation do not exist in the Ia-reflex-pathway components after a long-term stretching program as currently understood. Thus, any increases in flexibility are the result of other factors, potentially mechanical changes or stretch tolerance.

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Raul Bescós, Carlos Gonzalez-Haro, Pere Pujol, Franchek Drobnic, Eulalia Alonso, Maria Luisa Santolaria, Olga Ruiz, Marc Esteve and Pedro Galilea

To assess the effect of diet enrichment with L-arginine or supplementation at high doses on physiological adaptation during exercise, 9 athletes followed 3 different diets, each over 3 consecutive days, with a wash-out period of 4 d between training sessions: control diet (CD), 5.5 ± 0.3 g/d of L-arginine; Diet 1 (rich in L-arginine food), 9.0 ± 1.1 g/d of L-arginine; and Diet 2 (the same as CD but including an oral supplement of 15 g/d), 20.5 ± 0.3 g/d of L-arginine. Plasma nitrate levels of each participant were determined on the day after each treatment. Participants performed a submaximal treadmill test (initial speed 10–11 km/hr, work increments 1 km/hr every 4 min until 85–90% VO2max, and passive recovery periods of 2 min). Oxygen uptake and heart rate were monitored throughout the test. Blood lactate concentration ([La]b) was determined at the end of each stage. Repeated-measures ANOVA and paired Student’s t tests were used to compare the various physiological parameters between diets. The level of significance was set at p < .05. [La]b showed a significant effect at the 5-min time point between CD and Diet 2 (CD 3.0 ± 0.5 mM, Diet 2 2.5 ± 0.5 mM, p = .03), but this tendency was not found at higher exercise intensities. No significant differences were observed in any of the cardiorespiratory or plasma nitrate levels. In conclusion, dietary L-arginine intake on the days preceding the test does not improve physiological parameters during exercise.

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488 500 10.1123/pes.2016-0021 Physiological Adaptations following Resistance Training in Youth Athletes—A Narrative Review Kirsten Legerlotz * Robert Marzilger * Sebastian Bohm * Adamantios Arampatzis * 11 2016 28 4 501 520 10.1123/pes.2016-0023 Original Research Associations Between Balance

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Kristof Kipp, John Krzyszkowski and Daniel Kant-Hull

For sports where performance depends on the ability to generate high mechanical impulse, such as the sprints or throws in track and field, resistance training generally constitutes a large portion of the training process. 1 Optimal physiological adaptations to resistance training programs depend

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Xavier Woorons, François Billaut and Henry Vandewalle

sprint duration or distance, 6 or in work-to-rest ratio 7 are likely to be responsible for the absence of improved RSA after RSH. This is consistent with the observations that RSH induces specific physiological adaptations (ie, greater muscle blood perfusion) in the fast-twitch fibers. 8 , 9 Another

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Thomas Reeve, Ralph Gordon, Paul B. Laursen, Jason K.W. Lee and Christopher J. Tyler

, heart rate (HR), and core temperature to a similar extent as a moderate-intensity/low-volume protocol (∼35 min, 75% maximal oxygen uptake) suggesting that elevating the exercise intensity can reduce the duration required for heat adaptation. 8 The effect of these physiological adaptations on subsequent

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MUST TAKE THIS QUIZ ONLINE. 1. In their CAT, Burton and Lauber explain that, during intense aerobic exercise, heat production can equate to a core body temperature (T c ) increase of 1°C every _________ minutes. a. 1–3 b. 3–5 c. 5–7 d. 7–9 2. Physiological adaptations to thermal strain include the