power imbalance between the FIG and IOC allowed the IOC to exert pressure and influence on the FIG about how it governed gymnastics. This pressure to abide by Olympic norms is seen in policies developed across several fields, including those related to gender, economics, and athlete welfare, all of
This article examines developments in gender policies in sport in relation to recent changes in transsexual rights legislation and gender identity activism. The Gay Games has developed a gender identity policy about “men, women, transgender and intersex” athletes. In 2004, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) introduced the Stockholm Consensus on sex reassignment surgery to allow “transsexual” athletes to compete at the Olympics. These developments do not indicate an overall increase in the acceptance of gender variance in the world of sport; rather, there has been ongoing resistance to inclusive gender policies in mainstream sport organizations. I argue this resistance is based on anxieties about the instability of the male/female gender binary and the emergence of queer gender subjectivities within women’s, gay, and mainstream sporting communities.
Fiona C. Bull, Karen Milton and Sonja Kahlmeier
Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for noncommunicable disease worldwide. Increasing physical activity requires large scale actions and relevant, supportive national policy across multiple sectors.
The policy audit tool (PAT) was developed to provide a standardized instrument to assess national policy approaches to physical activity. A draft tool, based on earlier work, was developed and pilot-tested in 7 countries.
After several rounds of revisions, the final PAT comprises 27 items and collects information on 1) government structure, 2) development and content of identified key policies across multiple sectors, 3) the experience of policy implementation at both the national and local level, and 4) a summary of the PAT completion process.
PAT provides a standardized instrument for assessing progress of national policy on physical activity. Engaging a diverse international group of countries in the development helped ensure PAT has applicability across a wide range of countries and contexts. Experiences from the development of the PAT suggests that undertaking an audit of health enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policy can stimulate greater awareness of current policy opportunities and gaps, promote critical debate across sectors, and provide a catalyst for collaboration on policy level actions. The final tool is available online.
Bryan A. McCullick, Thomas Baker, Phillip D. Tomporowski, Thomas J. Templin, Karen Lux and Tiffany Isaac
The purpose of this study was to analyze state school-based physical education (SBPE) policies’ text and the resulting legal implications. A textualist approach to the legal method of Statutory Interpretation framed the data analysis. Findings revealed the difficulty of determining with clarity a majority of PE statutes and it is probable that based on current wording, courts could not play a role in interpreting these statutes, thus leaving interpretation to educational authorities. Significant variability of how authorities interpret statutes increases the challenge of consistent interpretation or adherence to the NASPE Guidelines for Quality Physical Education and whether meaningful policy study can be conducted to determine if SBPE makes an impact.
Joe Piggin, Steven J. Jackson and Malcolm Lewis
In this article we use Foucault’s conception of games of truth to investigate how truth in public policy is rhetorically constructed through the notion of “transparency.” Data was collected from various public sources regarding a medal target policy promoted by Sport and Recreation New Zealand (Sparc) for the national team at the 2006 Commonwealth Games. By analyzing the multifarious rhetoric surrounding the medal target policy, we show that the notion of transparency, although ostensibly appealing and helpful as a mechanism to justify goals, exposes inherent contradictions that were counter to Sparc’s goals. The discussion encourages scholars and practitioners to conceive of policy as ongoing contests over truth. We suggest that practitioners might benefit from considering the problematic implications of promoting “transparent” public policy.
Gregory W. Heath and John Bilderback
Recent evidence suggests that policies and environmental approaches that support urban design and land use at the community and street/neighborhood level contributes to physical activity and active living among residents of communities. 1 , 2 However, there is a paucity of studies examining
Brian E. Menaker and Daniel P. Connaughton
Alcohol consumption at college football games concerns stadium and university administrators because of the risk of alcohol-related crime, injury, and other potential problems. The purpose of this study was to determine how many of the 120 NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision athletic department Web sites posted their stadium alcohol policies, what their alcohol policies contained, and how they differed. An analysis of information about the availability of alcohol, restrictions on alcohol consumption, and the enforcement of the policies on their official university-sponsored athletic department stadium Web sites was conducted. Results of the study suggested that alcohol policy information is often unavailable or difficult to locate. College athletic department Web sites are typically filled with varying information about their sport teams, but because of the layout and busy nature of such sites, it is often difficult to find certain information on them.
Michael Mutz and Marlena van Munster
in countries. 16 , 17 Although these factors are important context conditions for exercise and sports participation, governments may also try to influence the sport participation level with policies and measures that explicitly focus on physical activity promotion. To promote sports participation
Brittany M. Ingram, Melissa C. Kay, Christina B. Vander Vegt and Johna K. Register-Mihalik
makes age 13 the first age in which individuals can engage in body checking in Canada. Despite these changes, effectiveness of their implementation on the incidence of concussion in male youth ice hockey players remains unclear. Focused Clinical Question What is the effect of body checking policy
Combat oriented sports and activities have come under increasing scrutiny by the media and professional groups. In particular, within the last 5 years boxing has been a primary topic of concern. A variety of medical groups—neurological, pediatric, and general practice—have conducted extensive surveys and provided position policy statements regarding dangers associated with involvement in such an activity. Although the American Psychological Association recently endorsed a position advocating close scrutiny and eventual banning of amateur and professional boxing in 1987, surprisingly no serious review of the literature or empirical studies have been conducted with respect to a psychological evaluation of this sport. This article briefly reviews the evidence supporting the APA position on boxing.