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Jeffery P. Hughes, Margaret A. McDowell and Debra J. Brody

Background:

We examined leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in US adults 60 or more years of age. After determining the prevalence of 3 levels of LTPA (no LTPA, <150 minutes LTPA/wk, and ≥150 minutes of LTPA/wk), we examined the association of demographic variables and current health status with LTPA.

Methods:

Self-reported LTPA was examined by gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, family poverty income ratio, marital status, and self-reported health. Multiple logistic regression methods were used in the adjusted model.

Results:

Walking was the most frequently reported LTPA. Overall, 27% of adults achieved LTPA levels of 150 minutes or more per week. Male gender, younger age, non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, higher education attainment, higher income status, being married, and excellent self-reported health were associated with higher LTPA. The prevalence of no LTPA (52.5%) exceeded the Healthy People 2010 objective target of 20%.

Conclusions:

Our findings show that more than half of adults 60 or more years of age reported no LTPA and that levels of LTPA in the older population vary by demographic and health characteristics.

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Stephanie B. Jilcott Pitts, Michael B. Edwards, Justin B. Moore, Kindal A. Shores, Katrina Drowatzky DuBose and David McGranahan

Background:

Little is known about the associations between natural amenities, recreation facility density, and obesity, at a national level. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine associations between county-level natural amenities, density of recreation facilities, and obesity prevalence among United States counties.

Methods:

Data were obtained from a compilation of sources within the United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service Food Environment Atlas. Independent variables of interest were the natural amenities scale and recreation facilities per capita. The dependent variable was county-level obesity prevalence. Potential covariates included a measure of county-level percent Black residents, percent Hispanic residents, median age, and median household income. All models were stratified by population loss, persistent poverty, and metro status. Multilevel linear regression models were used to examine the association between obesity and natural amenities and recreation facilities, with “state” as a random effects second level variable.

Results:

There were statistically significant negative associations between percent obesity and 1) natural amenities and 2) recreation facilities per capita.

Conclusions:

Future research should examine environmental and policy changes to increase recreation facilities and enhance accessible natural amenities to decrease obesity rates.

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Gyöngyi Szabó Földesi

This paper is an analysis of the presence and the consequences of ageism and sexism in contemporary sport relative to Hungarian women. The major purposes are: (1) to consider some theoretical concerns about research on physical activity in the later years; (2) to examine how the double disadvantage of being old and female influences life-styles in connection with sport; (3) to review research relative to how and why sport is or is not an integral part of life-style of the 50+ age group of women in Hungary; (4) to present results of research carried out recently in Hungary on elderly people’s sport participation and their judgments of their own physical activity. Findings from a variety of studies were discussed, including 1987 and 1997 studies of the Budapest older population. Interview and questionnaire techniques were used to collect data relative to participation and interpretation of sport and physical activity. According to the findings, of the 1997 study, only 19% of women over 70 reported their health as satisfactory, compared with 5.6 % of the men. Lasting diseases were more frequent among women than among men (42.3 % versus 34.1 %). 38.8 % of females and 27.8 % of males aged 70-74 years cannot walk a distance of 2 kilometers; 47.1 % of females and 31.8 % of males in the same age groups are not able to ascend 10 stairsteps without taking a rest. Approximately 5 % of males over 60 and approximately 4% of females over 55 were physically active. It appears to the great majority of Hungarian older women that they are losers of the recent system change: because of growing poverty their life-chances have been worsening, their opportunities for choosing the components of their life-styles-including physical activity have narrowed and social distances within and between the individual age cohorts have increased, including sport participation. There is a need for rethinking attitudes and for increasing awareness of how physical fitness could keep Hungarians in all ages healthier, more independent and more optimistic.

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Emily M. D’Agostino, Sophia E. Day, Kevin J. Konty, Michael Larkin, Subir Saha and Katarzyna Wyka

/ethnicity and high household and area poverty. 15 , 16 Most research on the relationship between fitness and attendance in youth draws from cross-sectional data. 1 , 2 , 20 , 21 Although findings support a fitness–absenteeism relationship, multiple years of prospective, child-level data are needed to examine

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Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Kara D. Denstel, Kim Beals, Jordan Carlson, Scott E. Crouter, Thomas L. McKenzie, Russell R. Pate, Susan B. Sisson, Amanda E. Staiano, Heidi Stanish, Dianne S. Ward, Melicia Whitt-Glover and Carly Wright

to those from lower income households: 46%, 36%, and 34% of children ages 12-19 years living in households earning less than 130% of the federal poverty level, 130-349% of the federal poverty level, and 350% or more of the federal poverty level, respectively (2015-16 NHANES). There are differences in

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Mohammad Siahpush, Trish D. Levan, Minh N. Nguyen, Brandon L. Grimm, Athena K. Ramos, Tzeyu L. Michaud and Patrik L. Johansson

Total 75,768 72,753 68,706 6704 Abbreviations: NDI, National Death Index; NHIS, National Health Interview Survey. a Those with missing values for analysis time or any study variable except poverty status were excluded. Measurement Mortality The outcomes were all-cause mortality, and mortality from

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Melinda Forthofer, Marsha Dowda, Jennifer R. O’Neill, Cheryl L. Addy, Samantha McDonald, Lauren Reid and Russell R. Pate

39% among included), and they tended to live in neighborhoods with higher poverty levels (17.3% among excluded vs 15.8% among included). Data Collection Procedures Active consent and assent forms were sent home with students, and completed forms were returned to the schools. Parents

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Hannah G. Calvert, Lindsey Turner, Julien Leider, Elizabeth Piekarz-Porter and Jamie F. Chriqui

poverty rate were provided with the SNMCS data files and based on data from SNMCS, the National Center for Education Statistics, 40 and the Census Bureau Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates. 41 The student racial/ethnic distribution at the district level was obtained from the National Center for

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Sheila Hanlon

graceful confidence in a simple fringed bloomer costume. At her career best, Armaindo broke speed and endurance records, beating men, horses and women. At her worst, she fell into poverty and despair as her athletic career faded. Hall captures Armaindo’s formidable character both on and off the track

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Xiaoxia Zhang, Xiangli Gu, Tao Zhang, Priscila Caçola and Jing Wang

was noticed that other national population estimates revealed that 23.9% of children aged between 0 and17 years were classified as Hispanic in 2012. As for poverty levels, more than half of the children in our sample (51.4%) were from low-income families based on their poverty status (ratio of family