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Melinda Forthofer, Marsha Dowda, Jennifer R. O’Neill, Cheryl L. Addy, Samantha McDonald, Lauren Reid and Russell R. Pate

39% among included), and they tended to live in neighborhoods with higher poverty levels (17.3% among excluded vs 15.8% among included). Data Collection Procedures Active consent and assent forms were sent home with students, and completed forms were returned to the schools. Parents

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Hannah G. Calvert, Lindsey Turner, Julien Leider, Elizabeth Piekarz-Porter and Jamie F. Chriqui

poverty rate were provided with the SNMCS data files and based on data from SNMCS, the National Center for Education Statistics, 40 and the Census Bureau Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates. 41 The student racial/ethnic distribution at the district level was obtained from the National Center for

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Dani M. Moffit, Jamie L. Mansell and Anne C. Russ

Temple University Owls Athletic Training Society (OATS), committed to education and community involvement, formed a relationship with Lanning Square Elementary School (LSE). Located less than 10 miles from campus in Camden, NJ, a high incidence of poverty, violence, and one-parent families is the norm. Through a grant, OATS adopted the fifth-grade classes at LSE for 1 year, beginning with letter exchanges between OATS students and elementary students. OATS traveled to LSE for their holiday party, met their pen pals, and provided healthy snacks. In the spring, the LSE completed a health/wellness unit and visited Temple. Students shared several health activities including learning about bones/muscles in the anatomy laboratory, stretching properly, and exercising. They received lunch and Temple mementos. OATS raised money the following year to continue the project. This allowed OATS and administrators to participate positively in our community, promote diversity, and introduce healthy lifestyles to youngsters.

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Wendy Frisby, Susan Crawford and Therese Dorer

In contrast to traditional approaches to research, participatory action research calls for the active involvement of the community—including both the beneficiaries and providers of sport services—in defining research problems, executing interventions, interpreting results, and designing strategies to change existing power structures. The purpose of this paper was to analyze a participatory action research project designed to increase the access of women living below the poverty line and their families to local physical activity services. A framework developed by Green et al. (1995) formed the basis of the analysis. To place the analysis in context, the historical origins and theoretical assumptions underlying participatory action research were addressed. The case of the Women's Action Project demonstrated how the process can result in a more inclusive local sport system and, at the same time, provide a rich setting for examining organizational dynamics including collaborative decision-making, community partnerships, power imbalances, resource control, resistance to change, and nonhierarchical structures.

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Danny O’Brien and Jess Ponting

This research analyzes a strategic approach to managing surf tourism in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Surf tourists travel to often remote destinations for the purpose of riding surfboards, and earlier research suggests the mismanagement of surf tourism in some destinations has resulted in significant deleterious impacts on host communities. The research question in this study addresses how surf tourism can be managed to achieve sustainable host community benefits in the context of a developing country. Primary data came from semistructured interviews and participant observation. The findings demonstrate how sport governing bodies can engage host communities in a collaborative framework for the sustainable utilization of sport tourism resources. The derived knowledge from this research may decrease host communities’ reliance on less sustainable commercial activities, and inform policy and practice on sustainable approaches to using sport tourism for community building and poverty alleviation.

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Lee Smith, Brendon Stubbs, L. Hu, Nicola Veronese, Davy Vancampfort, Genevieve Williams, Domenico Vicinanza, Sarah E. Jackson, Li Ying, Guillermo F. López-Sánchez and Lin Yang

sample to triglyceride values less than or equal to 400 mg/dL for validity. 22 Sociodemographic Characteristics Sociodemographic characteristics, including age, gender, race and ethnicity, education, marital status, smoking and drinking behavior, ratio of family income to poverty, employment status, and

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Namkee G. Choi, Diana M. DiNitto, John E. Sullivan and Bryan Y. Choi

) education (bachelor’s degree vs. no degree); (e) work status within the past year (worked vs. did not work); (f) living arrangement (living alone vs. not living alone); and (g) ratio of family income to official U.S. poverty threshold (<200%, 200–399%, >400%, and missing). Comorbidities and other health

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Margaret McGladrey, Angela Carman, Christy Nuetzman and Nicole Peritore

with high poverty levels often experienced by rural residents can result in high levels of obesity and higher than average rates of chronic diseases, such as cancer and diabetes. 1 – 4 Addressing issues as complex as physical activity barriers in rural areas requires a multifaceted approach with

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Andrea Richardson, Bing Han, Stephanie Williamson and Deborah Cohen

retrieved directly from the city’s Department of Recreation and Parks or from their website. We selected parks to avoid parks in close proximity (<1 mile from each other) and to ensure distributions of chosen parks were similar with regard to sizes and local poverty rates for all neighborhood parks within

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Gina M. McCaskill, Olivio J. Clay, Peng Li, Richard E. Kennedy, Kathryn L. Burgio and Cynthia J. Brown

,000, which was based on poverty guidelines at the time of the initial study ( U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 ). Participants were asked how many individuals lived in their home. Geographic locations were defined as either rural or urban according to the Alabama Rural Health Association ( 1998 ). Body mass index