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Aubrey Newland, Rich Gitelson and W. Eric Legg

Connaughton et al. ( 2008 ) study indicated that the development of mental toughness required mental skills, such as self-talk, focus, preperformance routines, imagery, and goal setting. Because grit and mental toughness share the core notion of perseverance and resilience amid challenges, perhaps the

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Nicholas Stanger, Ryan Chettle, Jessica Whittle and Jamie Poolton

avoid disrupting their preperformance routine. A mean score for each subscale was calculated for analysis. Jones et al. ( 2005 ) provided psychometric support for the measure’s subscales, with alpha coefficients ranging from .81 to .88 in adult athletes from team and individual sports. Cognitive

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Rosemary A. Arthur, Nichola Callow, Ross Roberts and Freya Glendinning

observing athletes’ use of PS. The coaches talked about watching athletes’ use of PS and noticing how effective it was. Coaches said they listened to how negative athletes were and watched for breaks in preperformance routines. Coaches also mentioned testing athletes’ use of PS by providing challenges and

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Alex Oliver, Paul J. McCarthy and Lindsey Burns

preperformance routines have an important function for attention in sport, enabling an athlete to deal with distraction (e.g.,  Boutcher & Crews, 1987 ), focus attention (e.g.,  Cotterill, Sanders, & Collins, 2010 ), and act as a trigger ( Boutcher & Crews, 1987 ; Moran, 1996 ). Moreover, research ( Cotterill

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Richard A. Sille, Martin J. Turner and Martin R. Eubank

preperformance routines that help athletes prepare for skill execution. The athletes performing at a consistent high level had excellent strategies for refocusing when faced with distractions. Distraction-control plans have also been successful in golf ( McCaffrey & Orlick, 1989 ) and tennis ( Weinberg, 2006