feet, and locomotor skills, such as walking and hopping to describe goal-directed human movement ( Barnett, Salmon, & Hesketh, 2016 ; Sanchez et al., 2017 ), that are ideally learned during preschool and early school years ( Barnett, Salmon, et al., 2016 ) and which are associated with the practice of
Sandra Silva-Santos, Amanda Santos, Michael Duncan, Susana Vale and Jorge Mota
Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Chelsee Shortt, Adam Pennell and Ryan Sacko
socioeconomic preschool setting (e.g., Head Start) is needed to provide targeted, ecologically valid, intervention strategies. Moreover, further examination of the role of disability and underlying mechanisms for PA in all young children is needed. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in MC, PMC
Ali Brian, Farid Bardid, Lisa M. Barnett, Frederik J.A. Deconinck, Matthieu Lenoir and Jacqueline D. Goodway
research. A convenience sample of 326 preschoolers (170 Belgian and 156 US children) aged 4–5 years participated in the study. Data-collection took place between September 2013 and December 2013. Parents or legal guardians provided written informed consent for each participant. The University Ethics
Jo E. Cowden and Carol C. Torrey
The purpose of this study was to investigate performance of developmentally delayed preschoolers on intramodal and intermodal matching tasks in the visual and haptic modalities. The performance of these preschoolers was compared with the learning profile of handicapped children. Further analysis determined the relationship between performance on intra- and intermodal matching tasks and scores on visual motor integration and cognitive matching. Eighteen developmentally delayed preschoolers from ages 3.4 years to 5.11 were involved in four matching conditions: visual-visual, haptic-haptic (intramodal), visual-haptic, and haptic-visual (intermodal). Results of this study indicated that accuracy in all modalities increased as chronological age increased. The learning profile of developmentally delayed preschoolers differed from that of nonhandicapped children: the delayed children scored highest on the haptic-visual task, with the visual-haptic and visual-visual scores only slightly lower, but the haptic-haptic scores markedly lower. No meaningful relationship was apparent between performance in the four modalities and cognitive matching and visual motor integration.
Jason A. Mendoza, Jessica McLeod, Tzu-An Chen, Theresa A. Nicklas and Tom Baranowski
Childhood obesity is at record high levels in the US and disproportionately affects Latino children; however, studies examining Latino preschool children’s obesity-related risk factors are sparse. This study determined correlates of Latino preschoolers’ (ages 3–5 years) adiposity to inform future obesity interventions and policies.
Latino preschoolers (n = 96) from 4 Head Start centers in Houston, Texas were recruited. Parents reported acculturation and neighborhood safety. Children’s and parents’ height and weight were measured. Children’s television (TV) viewing was measured by TV diaries and physical activity by accelerometers. Linear regression was used with body mass index (BMI) z-score as the dependent variable and covariates sequentially added and retained in 4 blocks: 1) child age, gender, parent education, and BMI; 2) neighborhood safety and parent and child acculturation; 3) TV viewing; and 4) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).
In the final model (n = 96), only neighborhood disorder (β = 0.30, P = .005) and MVPA (β = –0.21, P = .049) were significantly associated with BMI z-score.
Among Latino preschoolers, higher neighborhood disorder and lower MVPA were associated with greater children’s BMI z-scores.
Christina Duff, Johann Issartel, Wesley O’ Brien and Sarahjane Belton
al., 2017 ), and South Africa ( Laureus Sport for Good Foundation, 2018 ) have now published 24-hour movement guidelines from birth to age 4 or 5, recommending the optimal balance of PA, SB, and sleep for infants, toddlers, and preschool children. These guidelines all recommend at least 180 minutes of PA
Margarita D. Tsiros, Emily J. Ward, Sophie Lefmann and Susan Hillier
). Although broadly focused on child development, there are calls for integrated multisector programs that leverage nongovernment sectors to provide accessible services targeting “at-risk” children ( Black et al., 2017 ). With increasing preschool enrollment rates globally (reported to be as high as 86% in
Christina Duff, Johann Issartel, Wesley O’ Brien and Sarahjane Belton
, as almost all investigations into childhood PA in Ireland have focused on children from the age of seven years old. Although, as yet, no specific PA guidelines exist for early childhood in Ireland, other countries have set specific evidence-based PA guidelines for babies, toddlers and preschool. In
Kara K. Palmer, Matthew W. Miller and Leah E. Robinson
A growing body of research has illuminated beneficial effects of a single bout of physical activity (i.e., acute exercise) on cognitive function in school-age children. However, the influence of acute exercise on preschoolers’ cognitive function has not been reported. To address this shortcoming, the current study examined the effects of a 30-min bout of exercise on preschoolers’ cognitive function. Preschoolers’ cognitive function was assessed following a single bout of exercise and a single sedentary period. Results revealed that, after engaging in a bout of exercise, preschoolers exhibited markedly better ability to sustain attention, relative to after being sedentary (p = .006, partial eta square = .400). Based on these findings, providing exercise opportunities appears to enhance preschoolers’ cognitive function.
Bo Shen, Gwen Alexander, Sharon Milberger and Kai-Lin C. Jen
While there is an emerging body of literature showing variations in physical activity between seasons, further investigation is needed to better understand this association in preschool-age children. This study was designed to examine seasonal variation from fall to winter in physical activity among preschoolers.
Forty-six preschool children from 2 preschools in a large Midwestern Metropolitan area completed weekly habitual physical activity measures in both fall and following winter. The habitual physical activity was quantified with the GT1M Actigraph uniaxial accelerometer. To determine seasonal differences in physical activity, a series of paired sample t tests were conducted.
Although overall physical activity level declined in winter, the magnitude of seasonality effects seem varied in terms of contexts. Compared with the decline during after-school time and during weekends, the differences in physical activity across the 2 seasons were much less evident during the time attending preschool and during weekdays.
Seasonality in physical activity can be moderated by other contextual factors, such as preschool policies and curriculum. Preschools may serve as a major battlefield for fighting against physical inactivity and obesity during childhood due to their practical controllability.