The purpose of this study was to (a) determine preservice teachers’ ability to use component-specific feedback to influence student performance on the overhand throw and (b) to develop an instrument to record teachers’ verbal behaviors concurrent with student performance. Preservice teachers used a force-production sequence of overhand throw components (Siedentop, Herkowitz, & Rink, 1984) to intervene upon sport-skill performance of elementary age children. Techniques for observing, recording, and accessing overhand throwing performance and the subsequent instructional statements of the preservice teachers were presented, using the sport skill process variable assessment instrument (SSPVA). Analyses of data suggested three major patterns of instructional feedback statements provided by preservice teachers: (a) Preservice teachers often provided feedback on a component that had been consistently demonstrated at a high level of efficiency; (b) some components were not demonstrated at consistently high efficiency levels, yet little or no specific feedback was directed toward these components; and (c) when preservice teachers were able to recognize errors and provide appropriate feedback, change did occur.
Sandra A. Stroot and Judith L. Oslin
Monica Fabian Lounsbery and Tom Sharpe
This study, conducted within an undergraduate Methods of Teaching Physical Education and School-Based Practice Teaching course, used an AB maintenance-across-participants design to (a) sequentially describe preservice teachers’ (N = 4) instructional interactions with students, (b) examine the effects of sequential feedback on the sequential nature of preservice teachers’ instructional interactions with students, and (c) assess the influence of differential sequential preservice teacher instructional interactions on student skill practice. Instructional interaction sequential data indicated that explicit teacher instruction and refinement were sequentially connected to student-appropriate skill practice, while general teacher instruction was sequentially connected to student-inappropriate skill practice. The data indicated that the sequential feedback protocol (a) consistently increased the incidence of refinement and explicit instruction within preservice teacher sequential instructional interactions for all participants, and (b) preservice teacher sequential pattern changes positively influenced the incidence of student-appropriate skill practice. This study also supports a strong relationship between explicit instruction and refinement and student-appropriate skill practice. Implications for further research into the sequential behavior determinants of the teaching and learning process in situational context are discussed last.
K. Andrew R. Richards and Thomas J. Templin
theories may be at odds with PETE programming ( Richards et al., 2018 ). Because socialization is a dialectical process ( Schempp & Graber, 1992 ; Zeichner & Gore, 1990 ), it cannot be assumed that preservice teachers will passively adopt the views of the PETE faculty members seeking to socialize them
Samuel R. Hodge, Nathan M. Murata and Francis M. Kozub
The purpose was to develop an instrument for use in physical education teacher education (PETE) programs that would yield valid evidence of the judgments of PETE preservice teachers toward the inclusion of students with disabilities into general physical education classes. Both the conceptualization that judgments represent the cognitive expressions of attitudes (Ajzen, 2001; Sherif & Hovland, 1961) and focus group discussions were used to create the Physical Educators’ Judgments About Inclusion (PEJI) instrument. Following content validation procedures, we administered PEJI to 272 PETE preservice teachers. Subsequent principal component analysis to generate construct validity evidence indicated 15 items should be retained; they collectively explained 53% of the variance using a three-component model. Dimensions of the PEJI pertained to judgments about inclusion, acceptance, and perceived training needs. Alpha coefficients for the three subscales ranged from .64 to .88.
Mark Byra and Stephen C. Coulon
The purpose of this study was to compare the instructional behaviors of a group of preservice teachers across two teaching conditions, one planned and one unplanned. Twelve physical education teacher education (PETE) majors each taught two 25-minute lessons to elementary-age learners. Lesson plans were developed for the first lesson (planned condition) but not the second (unplanned condition). All lessons were videotaped and employed in the data analyses. Three data collection instruments were used for the analysis of selected teaching behaviors: (a) the Academic Learning Time-Physical Education (ALT-PE) system, (b) an event recording instrument for coding teacher verbal feedback statements, and (c) the Qualitative Dimensions of Lesson Introduction, Task Presentation, and Lesson Closure (QDITC) system. The results suggest that planning has a positive effect on some preservice teachers’ instructional behaviors. For teachers in training, it seems that planning is important to the employment of “effective” teaching behaviors in the interactive teaching environment.
Carlos Capella-Peris, Jesús Gil-Gómez and Òscar Chiva-Bartoll
The competence-based approach to train preservice teachers (PTs) promotes the implementation of active and experiential methodologies, allowing students to apply learning in real conditions ( Chambers & Lavery, 2012 ). In accordance with this view, service-learning (SL) is a teaching methodology
Margaret Stran and Matthew Curtner-Smith
The purpose of this study was to (a) examine how two preservice teachers (PTs) interpreted and delivered the sport education (SE) model during their student teaching and (b) discover factors that led to the their interpreting and delivering the model in the ways they did. The theoretical framework used to guide data collection and analysis was occupational socialization. Data were collected using a variety of qualitative techniques and analyzed using standard interpretive methods. Results revealed that high quality SE-Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) facilitated both a commitment to the model and the ability to teach the full version of it for a teaching-oriented and moderately coaching-oriented PT. Key elements of SE-PETE responsible for this commitment and competence appeared to be the teaching of prescribed mini-seasons before student teaching, the conditions encountered by PTs during teaching practice, and a host of PETE faculty characteristics congruent with the general PETE occupational socialization literature.
J.T. Deenihan and Ann MacPhail
How preservice teachers (PSTs) learn and deliver Sport Education (SE) (Sieden-top, 1994) is an area researchers believe warrants further investigation (Stran &R Curtner-Smith, 2009a). This study explores one PST’s experiences delivering SE during a school teaching placement after undertaking a practical SE module in his Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) program. Data were collected through pre, mid- and postteaching placement interviews, along with weekly visits by the first author where observation reflections and interviews were used to investigate his experiences delivering SE. Data were triangulated and analyzed using thematic coding. Occupational socialization (Lawson, 1983a, 1983b) was used to determine the factors which influenced his delivery of SE. Results showed his SE season was influenced by his teaching orientation, sporting experiences, PETE program and school context where he was teaching. Although he encountered difficulties, he valued SE’s benefits and continued to use it during his subsequent career as a qualified teacher.
Jeremiah T. Deenihan and Ann MacPhail
Research investigating teachers’ and preservice teachers’ (PSTs) experiences delivering Sport Education (SE) necessitates further attention (Glotova & Hastie, 2014). Research that has been conducted to date has shared varied findings, with some teachers finding it difficult to teach SE in its entirety (Curtner-Smith, Hastie, & Kinchin, 2008). This study investigated seven PSTs’ delivery of SE during their teaching placement in the final year of their physical education teacher education (PETE) program. Data were gathered through pre- and postteaching placement interviews and midteaching placement focus groups, which were analyzed using thematic coding and constant comparison (Miles & Huberman, 1994; Thomas, 2009). Occupational socialization (Lawson, 1983a, 1983b) was used as the framework to analyze the factors that influenced their learning and delivery of SE. Findings show that PSTs encountered specific difficulties related to teaching SE on teaching placement and that their cooperating teachers played a significant role in their delivery of SE.
The effects of a self-management program on preservice teachers’ performance were examined. Intervention included a self-instructional module for self-management as well as practice for implementing self-management in teaching. During a field experience in physical education, pupil behaviors in the classes of four subjects were coded by trained observers using the Academic Learning Time-Physical Education Observation System (ALT-PE). Each teacher’s verbal behavior was audiotaped and coded using the event recording method. The influence of the cooperating teacher and the supervisor was controlled in order to assess self-management efficacy. Results indicated that teachers can acquire self-management skills as they do other teaching skills during their preservice education. A multiple-baseline design across behaviors and a reversal design showed that all subjects changed their teaching behaviors effectively and met the field experience criteria.