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Phillip Ward

serves the teaching of children and youth in public schools ( Bulger, Jones, Taliaferro, & Wayda, 2015 ; Metzler et al., 2015 ; Templin et al., 2014 ; Ward, 2016 ; Ward et al., 2017 ). My task in this article is to describe the pipeline (i.e., the setting); its policy pressure points (i

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Bruce S. Alpert and Jack H. Wilmore

This paper reviewed the available research literature to determine the role of exercise training in reducing resting blood pressure in adolescents. Similar to the adult population, there is little evidence to support the efficacy of exercise training for reducing resting blood pressure in normotensive adolescents, although several studies reported small decreases in either or both systolic and diastolic pressure. In hypertensive adolescents, aerobic-type exercise training consistently reduced both systolic and diastolic pressure, but seldom to completely normal levels. Resistance training has not been studied as extensively, but may be of some benefit. It is recommended that chronic aerobic and strength activities be part of an overall health maintenance program.

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Tobias Vogel and Oliver Genschow

Research on regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) suggests that performance increases if instructions fit with sportspersons’ dispositions. Sportspersons who chronically focus on wins (i.e., promotion-oriented individuals) perform best if instructions frame the objective as a promotion goal (e.g., “Try to hit!”). By contrast, sportspersons who chronically focus on losses (i.e., prevention-oriented individuals) perform best if instructions frame the objective as a prevention goal (e.g., “Try not to miss!”). Recent theorizing also suggests that regulatory focus interacts with task difficulty. In an experiment, we assessed soccer performance as a function of chronic focus, instructional focus, and task difficulty. Results support that task difficulty moderates the effects of fit on performance; fitting instructions to match the sportsperson’s chronic regulatory focus improved performance in the easy rather than the difficult task. Findings are discussed regarding the role of regulatory fit in altering subjective pressure during sports performance.

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Hin Fong Leong, Wing-Kai Lam, Wei Xuan Ng and Pui Wah Kong

the development of stability-optimized basketball shoes. Biomechanically, stability can be measured objectively with center of pressure (COP) changes during locomotion. The COP, quantified using a force/pressure plate system or plantar pressure insole system, is the point where resultant plantar

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Seth T. Strayer, Seyed Reza M. Moghaddam, Beth Gusenoff, Jeffrey Gusenoff and Kurt E. Beschorner

on the medical system. These ulcers typically form due to the loss of protective sensation associated with diabetes and elevated plantar pressures caused by foot deformities, gait instability, repetitive minor foot abrasions, and loss of fat pad quality. Foot pressure reduction, otherwise known as

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Amanda Zaleski, Beth Taylor, Braden Armstrong, Michael Puglisi, Priscilla Clarkson, Stuart Chipkin, Charles Michael White, Paul D. Thompson and Linda S. Pescatello

Hypertension, now defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥80 mmHg, is the most common, costly, and modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor in the United States and world. Hypertension affects 103 million or ∼46% of Americans ( Muntner et

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Yannick A. Balk, Marieke A. Adriaanse, Denise T.D. de Ridder and Catharine Evers

Performing under high pressure is an emotional experience. Hence, the use of emotion regulation strategies may prove to be highly effective in preventing choking under pressure. Using a golf putting task, we investigated the role of arousal on declined sport performance under pressure (pilot study) and the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies in alleviating choking under pressure (main study). The pilot study showed that pressure resulted in decreased performance and this effect was partially mediated by increased arousal. The main study, a field study, showed that whereas the choking effect was observed in the control condition, reappraisal and, particularly, distraction were effective emotion regulation strategies in helping people to cope instead of choke under pressure. These findings suggest that interventions that aim to prevent choking under pressure could benefit from including emotion regulation strategies.

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Paul Head, Mark Waldron, Nicola Theis and Stephen David Patterson

stimulating electrodes over muscle motor points. 15 These parameters have not been utilized in previous NMES and BFR studies on the quadriceps. 12 , 13 In addition, the vast majority of studies have implemented BFR by prescribing an arbitrary restrictive pressure 13 , 14 , 16 , 17 or based their occlusion

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Thaís Reichert, Rochelle Rocha Costa, Bruna Machado Barroso, Vitória de Mello Bones da Rocha, Henrique Bianchi Oliveira, Cláudia Gomes Bracht, Anemarí Girardon de Azevedo and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

mortality ( Ezzati et al., 2005 ) and are considered to be the leading cause of death worldwide (13.5% of all deaths; Lawes, Vander Hoorn, & Rodgers, 2008 ). Therefore, controlling blood pressure (BP) levels may be fundamental to the prevention of cardiovascular events in an aging population. Regular

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Mikko Virmavirta and Paavo V. Komi

The Paromed Datalogger® with two insole pressure transducers (16 sensors each, 200 Hz) was applied to study the feasibility of the system for measurement of plantar pressure distribution in ski jumping. The specific aim was to test the sensitivity of the Paromed system to the changes in plantar pressure distribution in ski jumping. Three international level ski jumpers served as subjects during the testing of the system. The Datalogger was fixed to the jumpers’ lower back under the jumping suit. A separate pulse was transmitted to the Datalogger and tape recorder in order to synchronize the logger information with photocell signals indicating the location of the jumper on the inrun. Test procedure showed that this system could be used in ski jumping with only minor disturbance to the jumper. The measured relative pressure increase during the inrun curve matched well the calculated relative centrifugal force (mv2 · r‒1), which thus serves a rough estimation of the system validity. Strong increase in pressure under the big toes compared to the heels (225% and 91%, respectively) with large interindividual differences characterized the take-off. These differences may reflect an unstable anteroposterior balance of a jumper while he tries to create a proper forward rotation for a good flight position.