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Sarah J. Willis, Grégoire P. Millet and Fabio Borrani

the vascular and hemodynamic responses as well. The mechanisms controlled by blood pressure and muscle oxygen delivery 3 are particularly of interest during these hypoxic stimuli, specifically the muscle and respiratory pump, along with increased arteriovenous pressure gradient (perfusion pressure

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Ozcan Esen, Ceri Nicholas, Mike Morris and Stephen J. Bailey

sample collection and blood pressure (BP) measurement. After 30 minutes of passive recovery, participants completed a 100-m front-crawl TT. The data during this familiarization visit were not used for further analyses. Following completion of this initial familiarization, participants were assigned to

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Andrew G. Wood, Jamie B. Barker, Martin Turner and Peter Thomson

irrational beliefs to be matched with greater increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP) indicative of autonomic rigidity, whereas the adoption of rational beliefs was matched with decreases in SBP, which is indicative of autonomic flexibility (e.g.,  Harris, David, & Dryden, 2006 ). Most notably, research

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Jennifer Sygo, Alexandra M. Coates, Erik Sesbreno, Margo L. Mountjoy and Jamie F. Burr

nature of the study, and all participants provided written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Ethics approval was obtained through the University of Guelph Research Ethics Board. Study Design Initial data collection (“PRE”), including demographics, blood work, blood pressure

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Cristiane B.B. Antonelli, Charlini S. Hartz, Sileno da Silva Santos and Marlene A. Moreno

). Measurement of maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) followed by maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) was obtained from residual volume and total lung capacity, respectively, using a manual shutter apparatus with the maximal pressures measured using a manometer with an aneroid-type gauge (±300 cmH 2 O; Ger

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Todd Anthony Astorino, Riana Lee Rohmann, Kelli Firth and Sondra Kelly

Caffeine (CAF) exerts a pressor effect both at rest and during exercise, as blood pressure is higher than with placebo. The effect of acute CAF ingestion combined with intense resistance training on cardiovascular function is unknown, however. The primary aim of the study was to examine changes in cardiovascular function after completion of fatiguing bench-press and leg-press exercise after CAF or placebo ingestion. Twenty-two resistance-trained men ingested CAF (6 mg/kg) or placebo 1 h pre exercise in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. They refrained from CAF intake and strenuous exercise 48 and 24 h pretrial, respectively. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured pre exercise. After a standardized warm-up, 1-repetition-maximum (1-RM) on the barbell bench press and leg press was tested. When it had been determined, a load equivalent to 60% of 1-RM was placed on the bar, and the subject completed repetitions to failure. Measurements of heart rate and blood pressure were immediately completed, and mean arterial pressure and rate-pressure product were calculated. Results showed significant (P < 0.05) increases in heart rate (+ 10 beats/min), systolic blood pressure (+ 8–10 mmHg), and rate-pressure product with acute CAF ingestion versus placebo. No change (P > 0.05) in diastolic blood pressure across time or treatment was shown. To prevent elevated blood pressure and potential enhanced risk of heart disease, CAF intake should be monitored in at-risk men who participate in resistance training.

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David Morawetz, Tobias Dünnwald, Martin Faulhaber, Hannes Gatterer and Wolfgang Schobersberger

Parameters such as stability, sensory, symmetry, or center of pressure provide information to assess one’s individual balance ability. 3 , 5 One relevant performance-influencing factor that is difficult for ski racers to manage is environmental hypoxia. During the official International Ski Federation (FIS

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Paul F.J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà and Chris R. Abbiss

·s −1 ; D W is the wind direction in degrees; and D B is the riding direction in degrees. Finally, measurements of temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure were recorded 4 times during the session with the weather station (Davis Instruments Corp). The average of these 4 measurements

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Fraser Carson, Julia Walsh, Luana C. Main and Peter Kremer

). It is not feasible or desirable to remove these factors from high performance sport, meaning that coaches need to be able to self-manage if they are to operate effectively under these pressures ( Olusoga, Butt, Hays, & Maynard, 2009 ). High performance sport refers to the higher echelon of sport

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Philippe Richard and François Billaut

were told that the study purpose was to compare the impact of 2 different cuff pressures that could alter microperfusion and arterial inflow and that both techniques could potentially alter performance positively as follows: The aim of the study was to determine the most suitable intervention